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   21 XXI

1

., , 2005 , : , : . . Bush Pledges to Spread Democracy, CNN, 20 January 2005, http://edition.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/01/20/bush.speech/, accessed 7 January 2018. , ., , : Katie Reilly, Read Barack Obamas Final Speech to the United Nations as President, Time, 20 September 2016, http://time.com/4501910/president-obama-united-nations-speech-transcript/, accessed 3 December 2017.

2

William Neikirk and David S. Cloud, Clinton: Abuses Put China On Wrong Side of History, Chicago Tribune, 30 October 1997, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1997-10-30/news/9710300304_1_human-rights-jiang-zemin-chinese-leader, accessed 3 December 2017.

3

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4

Chris Graham and Robert Midgley, Mexico Border Wall: What is Donald Trump Planning, How Much Will It Cost and Who Will Pay for It?, Telegraph, 23 August 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/mexico-border-wall-donald-trump-planning-much-will-cost-will/, accessed 3 December 2017; Michael Schuman, Is China Stealing Jobs? It May Be Losing Them, Instead, New York Times, 22 July 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/23/business/international/china-jobs-donald-trump.html, accessed 3 December 2017.

5

XIX XX . Evgeny Dobrenko and Eric Naiman (eds.), The Landscape of Stalinism: The Art and Ideology of Soviet Space (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003); W. L. Guttsman, Art for the Workers: Ideology and the Visual Arts in Weimar Germany (New York: Manchester University Press, 1997). ., , Nicholas John Cull, Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present (Santa Barbara: ABCCLIO, 2003).

6

.: Ishaan Tharoor, Brexit: A modern-day Peasants Revolt?, Washington Post, 25 June 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/06/25/the-brexit-a-modern-day-peasants-revolt/?utm_term=.9b8e81bd5306; John Curtice, US election 2016: The Trump Brexit voter revolt, BBC, 11 November 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2016-37943072.

7

, , Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (London: Penguin, 1992).

8

Ayelet Shani, The Israelis Who Take Rebuilding the Third Temple Very Seriously, Haaretz, 10 August 2017, https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.805977, accessed January 2018; Israeli Minister: We Should Rebuild Jerusalem Temple, Israel Today, 7 July 2013, http://www.israeltoday.co.il/Default.aspx?tabid=178&nid=23964, accessed 7 January 2018; Yuri Yanover, Dep. Minister Hotovely: The Solution Is Greater Israel without Gaza, Jewish Press, 25 August 2013, http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/dep-minister-hotovely-the-solution-is-greater-israel-without-gaza/2013/08/25/, accessed 7 January 2018; Israeli Minister: The Bible Says West Bank Is Ours, Al Jazeera, 24 February 2017, http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/upfront/2017/02/israeli-minister-bible-west-bank-170224082827910.html, accessed 29 January 2018.

9

Katie Reilly, Read Barack Obamas Final Speech to the United Nations as President, Time, 20 September 2016, http://time.com/4501910/president-obama-united-nations-speech-transcript/, accessed 3 December 2017.

10

Gregory R. Woirol, The Technological Unemployment and Structural Unemployment Debates (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996), 1820; Amy Sue Bix, Inventing Ourselves out of Jobs? Americas Debate over Technological Unemployment, 19291981 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 18; Joel Mokyr, Chris Vickers and Nicolas L. Ziebarth, The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different?, Journal of Economic Perspectives 29:3 (2015), 3342; Joe Mokyr, The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 255257; David H. Autor, Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and the Future of Workplace Automation, Journal of Economic Perspectives 29:3 (2015), 330; Melanie Arntz, Terry Gregory and Ulrich Zierahn, The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 89 (2016); Mariacristina Piva and Marco Vivarelli, Technological Change and Employment: Were Ricardo and Marx Right?, IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Discussion Paper No.10471 (2017).

11

., , , : Nicholas Ernest et al., Genetic Fuzzy based Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Control in Simulated Air Combat Missions, Journal of Defense Management 6:1 (2016), 17; : Kurt VanLehn, The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems, Educational Psychologist 46:4 (2011), 197221; : Giuseppe Nuti et al., Algorithmic Trading, Computer 44:11 (2011), 6169; , . .: Arash Baharammirzaee, A comparative Survey of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Finance: Artificial Neural Networks, Expert System and Hybrid Intelligent Systems, Neural Computing and Applications 19:8 (2010), 11651195; , : Marjorie Glass Zauderer et al., Piloting IBM Watson Oncology within Memorial Sloan Ketterings Regional Network, Journal of Clinical Oncology 32:15 (2014), e17653; : Jean-Sébastien Vayre et al., Communication Mediated through Natural Language Generation in Big Data Environments: The Case of Nomao, Journal of Computer and Communication 5 (2017), 125148; : Florian Schroff, Dmitry Kalenichenko and James Philbin, FaceNet: A Unified Embedding for Face Recognition and Clustering, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2015), 815823; : Cristiano Premebida, A Lidar and Vision-based Approach for Pedestrian and Vehicle Detection and Tracking, 2007 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (2007).

12

Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011); Dan Ariely, Predictably Irrational (New York: Harper, 2009); Brian D. Ripley, Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); Christopher M. Bishop, Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (New York: Springer, 2007).

13

Seyed Azimi et al., Vehicular Networks for Collision Avoidance at Intersections, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems 4 (2011), 406416; Swarun Kumar et al., CarSpeak: A Content-Centric Network for Autonomous Driving, SIGCOM Computer Communication Review 42(2012), 259270; Mihail L. Sichitiu and Maria Kihl, Inter-Vehicle Communication Systems: A Survey, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (2008), 10; Mario Gerla, Eun-Kyu Lee and Giovanni Pau, Internet of Vehicles: From Intelligent Grid to Autonomous Cars and Vehicular Clouds, 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) (2014), 241246.

14

David D. Luxton et al., mHealth for Mental Health: Integrating Smartphone Technology in Behavioural Healthcare, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 42:6 (2011), 505512; Abu Saleh Mohammad Mosa, Illhoi Yoo and Lincoln Sheets, A Systematic Review of Healthcare Application for Smartphones, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 12:1 (2012), 67; Karl Frederick Braekkan Payne, Heather Wharrad and Kim Watts, Smartphone and Medical Related App Use among Medical Students and Junior Doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): A Regional Survey, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 12:1 (2012), 121; Sandeep Kumar Vashist, E. Marion Schneider and John H. T. Loung, Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalised Healthcare Monitoring and Management, Diagnostics 4:3 (2014), 104128; Maged N. Kamel Bouls et al., How Smartphones Are Changing the Face of Mobile and Participatory Healthcare: An Overview, with Example from eCAALYX, BioMedical Engineering OnLine 10:24 (2011), https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-10-24, accessed 30 July 2017; Paul J. F. White, Blake W. Podaima and Marcia R. Friesen, Algorithms for Smartphone and Tablet Image Analysis for Healthcare Applications, IEEE Access 2 (2014), 831840.

15

World Health Organization, Global status report on road safety 2015 (2016); Estimates for 20002015, Cause-Specific Mortality, http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.html, accessed 6 September 2017.

16

.: Daniel J. Fagnant and Kara Kockelman, Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles: Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Recommendations, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 77 (2015), 167181; ., : OECD/ITF, Road Safety Annual Report 2016 (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/irtad-2016-en.

17

Kristofer D. Kusano and Hampton C. Gabler, Safety Benefits of Forward Collision Warning, Brake Assist, and Autonomous Braking Systems in Rear-End Collisions, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 13:4 (2012), 15461555; James M. Anderson et al., Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2014), esp. 1315; Daniel J. Fagnant and Kara Kockelman, Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles: Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Recommendations, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 77 (2015), 167181; Jean-Francois Bonnefon, Azim Shariff and Iyad Rahwan, Autonomous Vehicles Need Experimental Ethics: Are We Ready for Utilitarian Cars?, arXiv (2015), 115. .: Seyed R. Azimi et al., Vehicular Networks for Collision Avoidance at Intersections, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems 4:1 (2011), 406416; Swarun Kumar et al., CarSpeak: A Content-Centric Network for Autonomous Driving, SIGCOM Computer Communication Review 42:4 (2012), 259270; Mihail L. Sichitiu and Maria Kihl, Inter-Vehicle Communication Systems: A Survey, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 10:2 (2008); Mario Gerla et al., Internet of Vehicles: From Intelligent Grid to Autonomous Cars and Vehicular Clouds, 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) (2014), 241246.

18

Michael Chui, James Manyika and Mehdi Miremadi, Where Machines Could Replace Humans and Where They Cant (Yet), McKinsey Quarterly (2016), http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/where-machines-could-replace-humans-and-where-they-cant-yet, accessed 1 March 2018.

19

Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell, Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans, PANS, vol. 112 (2014), 10361038.

20

Stuart Dredge, AI and music: will we be slaves to the algorithm? Guardian, 6 August 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/aug/06/artificial-intelligence-and-will-we-be-slaves-to-the-algorithm, accessed 15 October 2017. .: Jose David Fernández and Francisco Vico, AI Methods in Algorithmic Composition: A Comprehensive Survey, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 48 (2013), 513582.

21

Eric Topol, The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine is in Your Hands (New York: Basic Books, 2015); Robert Wachter, The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype and Harm at the Dawn of Medicines Computer Age (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015); Simon Parkin, The Artificially Intelligent Doctor Will Hear You Now, MIT Technology Review (2016), https://www.technologyreview.com/s/600868/the-artificially-intelligent-doctor-will-hear-you-now/; James Gallagher, Artificial intelligence as good as cancer doctors, BBC, 26 January 2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/health-38717928.

22

Kate Brannen, Air Forces lack of drone pilots reaching crisis levels, Foreign Policy, 15 January 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/01/15/air-forces-lack-of-drone-pilots-reaching-crisis-levels/.

23

Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013); Brad Bush, How combined human and computer intelligence will redefine jobs, TechCrunch (2016), https://techcrunch.com/2016/11/01/how-combined-human-and-computer-intelligence-will-redefine-jobs/.

24

Ulrich Raulff, Farewell to the Horse: The Final Century of Our Relationship (London: Allen Lane, 2017); Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008), 286; Margo DeMello, Animals and Society: An Introduction to Human-Animal Studies (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012), 197; Clay McShane and Joel Tarr, The Decline of the Urban Horse in American Cities, Journal of Transport History 24:2 (2003), 177198.

25

Lawrence F. Katz and Alan B. Krueger, The Rise and Nature of Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States, 19952015, National Bureau of Economic Research (2016); Peter H. Cappelli and J. R. Keller, A Study of the Extent and Potential Causes of Alternative Employment Arrangements, ILR Review 66:4 (2013), 874901; Gretchen M. Spreitzer, Lindsey Cameron and Lyndon Garrett, Alternative Work Arrangements: Two Images of the New World of Work, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 4 (2017), 473499; Sarah A. Donovan, David H. Bradley and Jon O. Shimabukuru, What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?, Washington DC: Congressional Research Service (2016), https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44365.pdf, accessed 11 February 2018; More Workers Are in Alternative Employment Arrangements, Pew Research Center, 28 September 2016, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/10/06/the-state-of-american-jobs/st_2016-10-06_jobs-26/, accessed 11 February 2018.

26

David Ferrucci et al.,Watson: Beyond Jeopardy!, Artificial Intelligence 19200 (2013), 93105.

27

Googles AlphaZero Destroys Stockfish in 100-Game Match, Chess.com, 6 December 2017, https://www.chess.com/news/view/google-s-alphazero-destroys-stockfish-in-100-game-match, accessed 11 February 2018; David Silver et al., Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm, arXiv (2017), https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01815.pdf, accessed 2 February 2018; see also Sarah Knapton, Entire Human Chess Knowledge Learned and Surpassed by DeepMinds AlphaZero in Four Hours, Telegraph, 6 December 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/12/06/entire-human-chess-knowledge-learned-surpassed-deepminds-alphazero/, accessed 11 February 2018.

28

Cowen, Average is Over, op. cit.; Tyler Cowen, What are humans still good for? The turning point in freestyle chess may be approaching (2013), http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2013/11/what-are-humans-still-good-for-the-turning-point-in-freestyle-chess-may-be-approaching.html.

29

Maddalaine Ansell, Jobs for Life Are a Thing of the Past. Bring On Lifelong Learning, Guardian, 31 May 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2016/may/31/jobs-for-life-are-a-thing-of-the-past-bring-on-lifelong-learning.

30

Alex Williams, Prozac Nation Is Now the United States of Xanax, New York Times, 10 June 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/10/style/anxiety-is-the-new-depression-xanax.html.

31

Simon Rippon, Imposing Options on People in Poverty: The Harm of a Live Donor Organ Market, Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2014), 145150; I. Glenn Cohen, Regulating the Organ Market: Normative Foundations for Market Regulation, Law and Contemporary Problems 77 (2014); Alexandra K. Glazier, The Principles of Gift Law and the Regulation of Organ Donation, Transplant International 24 (2011), 368372; Megan McAndrews and Walter E. Block, Legalizing Saving Lives: A Proposition for the Organ Market, Insights to A Changing World Journal 2015, 117.

32

James J. Hughes, A Strategic Opening for a Basic Income Guarantee in the Global Crisis Being Created by AI, Robots, Desktop Manufacturing and BioMedicine, Journal of Evolution & Technology 24 (2014), 4561; Alan Cottey, Technologies, Culture, Work, Basic Income and Maximum Income, AI & Society 29 (2014), 249257.

33

Jon Henley, Finland Trials Basic Income for Unemployed, Guardian, 3 January 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/03/finland-trials-basic-income-for-unemployed, accessed 1 March 2018.

34

Swiss Voters Reject Proposal to Give Basic Income to Every Adult and Child, Guardian, 5 June 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/05/swiss-vote-give-basic-income-every-adult-child-marxist-dream.

35

Isabel Hunter, Crammed into squalid factories to produce clothes for the West on just 20p a day, the children forced to work in horrific unregulated workshops of Bangladesh, Daily Mail, 1 December 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3339578/Crammed-squalid-factories-produce-clothes-West-just-20p-day-children-forced-work-horrific-unregulated-workshops-Bangladesh.html, accessed 15 October 2017; Chris Walker and Morgan Hartley, The Culture Shock of Indias Call Centers, Forbes, 16 December 2012, https://www.forbes.com/sites/morganhartley/2012/12/16/the-culture-shock-of-indias-call-centres/#17bb61d372f5, accessed 15 October 2017.

36

Klaus Schwab and Nicholas Davis, Shaping the Fourth Industrial Revolution (World Economic Forum, 2018), 54. On long-term development strategies, see Ha-Joon Chang, Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective (London: Anthem Press, 2003).

37

Lauren Gambini, Trump Pans Immigration Proposal as Bringing People from Shithole Countries, Guardian, 12 January 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jan/11/trump-pans-immigration-proposal-as-bringing-people-from-shithole-countries, accessed 11 February 2018.

38

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39

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40

Melanie Lidman, As ultra-Orthodox women bring home the bacon, dont say the F-word, Times of Israel, 1 January 2016, https://www.timesofisrael.com/as-ultra-Orthodox-women-bring-home-the-bacon-dont-say-the-f-word/, accessed 15 October 2017; Statistical Report on Ultra-Orthodox Society in Israel, Israel Democracy Institute and Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies 18 (2016), https://en.idi.org.il/media/4240/shnaton-e_8-9-16_web.pdf, accessed 15 October 2017. , 11- 38 : Life Satisfaction, OECD Better Life Index, http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/life-satisfaction/, accessed 15 October 2017.

41

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42

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43

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44

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45

Steven Swinford, Boris Johnsons allies accuse Michael Gove of systematic and calculated plot to destroy his leadership hopes, Telegraph, 30 June 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/06/30/boris-johnsons-allies-accuse-michael-gove-of-systematic-and-calc/, accessed 3 September 2017; Rowena Mason and Heather Stewart, Goves thunderbolt and Boriss breaking point: a shocking Tory morning, Guardian, 30 June 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/30/goves-thunderbolt-boris-johnson-tory-morning, accessed 3 September 2017.

46

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47

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48

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49

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50

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51

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52

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53

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54

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55

Henry Grabar, Navigation Apps Are Killing Our Sense of Direction. What if They Could Help Us Remember Places Instead? Slate, http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2017/07/10/google_and_waze_are_killing_out_sense_of_direction_what_if_they_could_help.html, accessed 6 September 2017.

56

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57

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58

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60

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61

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