: . , 1916-1931 - , . :

 
 

- . , 1916-1931

, . . , , , , , .

   . , 1916-1931

1

W. Wilson, The Reconstruction of the Southern States, Atlantic Monthly, January 1901, vol. lxxxvii, . 115.

2

J. M. Keynes, Mr Churchill on the Peace, New Republic, 27 March 1929.

3

The Times, 27 December 1915, issue 41047, . 3.

4

Reichstag, Stenographischer Bericht, vol. 307, 850 ff, 5 April 1916, . 852.

5

W. S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston, MA, 1948), . vii.

6

W. S. Churchill, The Aftermath (London, 1929), . 459.

7

G. L. Weinberg (ed.), Hitlers Second Book (New York, 2006).

8

. , : http: // www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/.

9

C. Schmitt, Positionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar-Genf-Versailles 19231939 (Berlin, 1940).

10

: D. Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe (Princeton, NJ, 2000), H.-G. Gadamer, , Karl-Jaspers-Preis Laudatio für Jeanne Hersch, Heidelberger Jahrbücher 37 (1993), . 151158. , .

11

: M. Hardt and A. Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA, 2001); . . , (, 2004) C. S. Maier, Among Empires: American Ascendancy and Its Predecessors (Cambridge, MA, 2006).

12

L. Trotsky, Is the Slogan The United States of Europe a Timely One? http: //www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1924/ffyci-2/25b.htm; . . // . 1923. 30 .

13

A. Hitler, Zweites Buch (), . 127128.

14

, , : A. F. K. Organski and J. Kugler, The War Ledger (Chicago, IL, 1980).

15

, , , W. Kim J. D. Morrow, When Do Power Shifts Lead to War?, American Journal of Political Science 36, no. 4 (November 1992), . 896922.

16

, , .: H. Strachan, The First World War (London, 2003).

17

F. R. Dickinson, World War I and the Triumph of a New Japan, 19191930 (Cambridge,2013) . 87.

18

L. Trotsky, Perspectives of World Development, http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1924/07/world.htm; . . . . 28 1924 . // . 1924. 5 ( 176).

19

L. Trotsky, Disarmament and the United States of Europe, 4 October 1929; . . // ((-). 1929. 4 ( 6), http: // web.mit.edu/fjk/www/FI/BO/BO-06.shtml.

20

F. Meinecke, Machiavellism: The Doctrine of Raison dÉtat and its Place in Modern History, trans. Douglas Scott (New Haven, CT, 1957), . 432.

21

C. Schmitt, The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum (New York, 2006); . , Jus Publicum. Europaeum (-, 2008).

22

.: P. W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics, 17631848 (Oxford, 1994).

23

S. Falasca-Zamponi, Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolinis Italy (Berkeley CA, 1997) . 163.

24

A. J. Mayer, Wilson vs Lenin: Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 19171918 (New York, 1964); N. Gordon Levin, Woodrow Wilson and World Politics (Oxford, 1968).

25

L. Trotsky, Perspectives on World Development, http: //www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1924/07/world.htm; . . . . 28 1924 . // . 1924. 5 ( 176), http: // web. mit.edu/fjk/www/Trotsky/Europa/chapter2.html.

26

L. Trotsky, Europe and America, February 1924; . . ( 15 1926 .), http: //web.mit.edu/fjk/www/Trotsky/Europa/chapter3.html.

27

Ibid; .

28

., , , (Angus Maddison), http: // www.theworldeconomy.org/.

29

P. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (London, 1987).

30

J. Darwin, Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 18301970 (Cambridge, 2009).

31

D. Bell, The Idea of Greater Britain (Princeton, NJ, 2009).

32

E. J. Eisenach, The Lost Promise of Progressivism (Lawrence, KS, 1994), . 4852.

33

, (John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson, The Imperialism of Free Trade, The Economic History Review, second series, VI, no. 1 (1953), . 115.

34

W. A. Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (New York, 1959).

35

, : V. de Grazia, Irresistible Empire: Americas Advance Through Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge, MA, 2005).

36

: E. Hobsbawm, Age of Extremes (London, 1994); . : (19141991). ., 2004.

37

R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement (New York, 1922).

38

, , : T. A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace (New York, 1944), . 154155.

39

, , . .: T. Veblen, Editorial from The Dial, 15 November 1919, in Veblen, Essays in Our Changing Order (New York, 1934), . 459461.

40

: A. Mayer, The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War (New York, 1981); A. Mayer, Wilson versus Lenin: Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 19171918 (New York, 2nd ed., 1964); A. Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking (New York, 1967); A. Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The Final Solution in History (New York, 1988).

41

M. Mazower, Dark Continent: Europes Twentieth Century (London, 1998).

42

J. L. Harper, American Visions of Europe (Cambridge, 1994).

43

D. E. Ellwood, The Shock of America (Oxford, 2012).

44

: P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression: 19291939 (Berkeley, CA, 1973), R. Gilpin, The Theory of Hegemonic War, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (Spring 1988), . 591613, and G. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times (London, 1994).

45

J. Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars (Princeton, NJ, 2001).

46

A. Kupchan, No Ones World: The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn (Oxford, 2012).

47

C. Bright and M. Geyer, For a Unified History of the World in the Twentieth Century, Radical History Review 39 (September 1987), . 6991; M. Geyer and C. Bright, World History in a Global Age, in American Historical Review 100 (October 1995), . 10341060, and M. Geyer and C. Bright, Global Violence and Nationalizing Wars in Eurasia and America: The Geopolitics of War in the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Comparative Studies in Society and History 38, no. 4 (October 1996), . 619657.

48

J. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (London, 1902); . . , 1926.

49

. : A. DAgostino, The Rise of Global Powers: International Politics in the Era of the World Wars (Cambridge, 2012).

50

N. Smith, American Empire: Roosevelts Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley, CA, 2003).

51

M. Nebelin, Ludendorff (Munich, 2010).

52

D. Fromkin, The Peace to End all Peace (New York, 1989).

53

, , : A. Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 19211931 (Cambridge, MA, 1965).

54

D. Gorman, The Emergence of International Society in the 1920s (Cambridge, 2012).

55

, : M. Berg, Gustav Stresemann. Eine politische Karriere zwischen Reich und Republik (Göttingen, 1992).

56

N. Bamba, Japanese Diplomacy in a Dilemma (Vancouver, 1972), . 360366.

57

L. Trotsky, Perspectives of World Development (1924), http: //www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1924/07/world.htm; . . . 28 1924 . // . 1924. 5 ( 176), http: // web.mit.edu/fjk/www/Trotsky/Europa/chapter2.html.

58

A. Hitler, Mein Kampf (London, 1939), vol. 2, chapter 13.

59

: R. Boyce, The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization (London, 2009).

60

.: A. Stephanson, Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right (New York, 1995).

61

Eisenach, Lost Promise, . 225.

62

: D. E. Ellwood, The Shock of America (Oxford, 2012). . : T. Welskopp and A. Lessoff (eds), Fractured Modernity: America Confronts Modern Times, 1890s to 1940s (Oldenbourg, 2012).

63

, G. Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 19001916 (New York, 1963).

64

J. T. Sparrow, Warfare State: World War II Americans and the Age of Big Government (New York, 2011).

65

Douglas Steeples and David O. Whitten, Democracy in Desperation: The Depression of 1893 (Westport, CT, 1998).

66

: A. S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era 19101917 (New York, 1954).

67

W. C. Widenor, Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy (Berkeley, CA, 1983).

68

B. Knei-Paz, The Social and Political Thought of Leon Trotsky (Oxford, 1978).

69

V. I. Lenin, The chain Is No Stronger Than Its Weakest Link, Pravda 67, 9 June (27 May) 1917; Lenin: Collected Works (Moscow, 1964), vol. 24, 519520; . . . // . . . . . . 32. ., 1969, . 201202.

70

S. Hoffmann, Gullivers Troubles, or the Setting of American Foreign Policy (New York, 1968), . 52. . : R. Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge 1981).

71

.: H. Strachan, The First World War (London, 2003); D. Stevenson, 19141918: The History of the First World War (London, 2004).

72

N. A. Lambert, Planning Armageddon: British Economic Warfare and the First World War (Cambridge, MA, 2012).

73

S. Roskill, Naval Policy Between the Wars (New York, 1968 and 1976), vol. 1, . 8081.

74

H. Nouailhat, France et Etats-Unis: Août 1914-Avril 1917 (Paris, 1979), . 349355.

75

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (London, 1926), vol. 1, . 312313.

76

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ,19661994), vol. 36, . 120.

77

J. J. Safford, Wilsonian Maritime Diplomacy 19131921 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1978), . 67115.

78

P. O. OBrian, British and American Naval Power: Politics and Policy, 19001936 (West-port, CT, 1998), . 117.

79

R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: A Biography, 3 vols (New York, 19832000), vol. 1,. 305315.

80

K. Burk, Britain, America and the Sinews of War, 19141918 (London, 1985); H. Strachan, Financing the First World War (Oxford, 2004).

81

K. Neilson, Strategy and Supply: The Anglo-Russian Alliance 19141917 (London, 1984), . 106112.

82

M. Horn, Britain, France, and the Financing of the First World War (Montreal, 2002).

83

Nouailhat, France, . 368.

84

S. Broadberry and M. Harrison (eds), The Economics of World War I (Cambridge, 2005).

85

: H. Feis, Europe: The Worlds Banker 18701914 (New York, 1965).

86

R. Chernow, The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance (New York, 2001).

87

J. M. Keynes, The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. 16 (London, 1971-89), . 197.

88

P. Roberts, Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes? The Federal Reserve System s Founding Fathers and Allied Finances in the First World War, The Business History Review 72 (1998) . 585620.

89

E. Sanders, Roots of Reform (Chicago, IL, 1999); A. H. Meltzer, A History of the Federal Reserve (Chicago, IL, 20022003).

90

W. L. Silber, When Washington Shut Down Wall Street: The Great Financial Crisis of 1914 and the Origins of Americas Monetary Supremacy (Princeton, NJ, 2007).

91

N. Ferguson, The Pity of War: Explaining World War I (London, 1998).

92

A. Offer, The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford, 1991).

93

. : D. E. Ellwood, The Shock of America (Oxford, 2012).

94

J. Banno, Democracy in Prewar Japan: Concepts of Government 18711937 (London, 2001), . 47.

95

W. Wilson, Congressional Government: A Study in American Government (PhD thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 1885).

96

D. T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge, MA,1998).

97

W. Wilson, Democracy and Efficiency, Atlantic Monthly (March 1901), . 289.

98

T. Raithel, Das Wunder der inneren Einheit (Bonn, 1996).

99

T. Roosevelt, America and the World War (New York, 1915).

100

J. M. Cooper, The Warrior and the Priest: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson (Cambridge, MA, 1983), . 284285.

101

W. Wilson, A History of the American People (New York, 1902), and J. M. Cooper, Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (New York, 2009).

102

PWW, vol. 57, . 246.

103

W. Wilson, The Reconstruction of the Southern States, Atlantic Monthly, January 1901, . 115.

104

R. E. Hannigan, The New World Power: American Foreign Policy, 18981917 (Philadelphia, PA, 2002), . 4548.

105

R. S. Baker and W. E. Dodd (eds), The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (New York, 19251927), vol. 1, . 224225.

106

T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), . 77.

107

PWW, vol. 37, . 116.

108

PWW, vol. 40, . 8485.

109

PWW, vol. 41, . 183184, 1917 . .: ibid., . 316317.

110

B. M. Manly, Have Profits Kept Pace with the Cost of Living?, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (1920), . 157162.

111

M. J. Pusey, Charles Evans Hughes (New York, 1951), vol. 1, . 335366.

112

The Memoirs of Marshal Joffre, trans. T. B. Mott (London, 1932), vol. 2, . 461.

113

P. v. Hindenburg, Aus Meinem Leben (Leipzig, 1920), . 180181.

114

G. Ritter, Staatskunst und Kriegshandwerk (Munich, 19541968), vol. 3, . 246.

115

G. E. Torrey, Romania and World War I (Lasi, 1998), . 174.

116

S. Miller, Burgfrieden und Klassenkampf: Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie in Ersten Weltkrieg (Düsseldorf, 1974), . 263264.

117

D. French, The Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition, 1916-19 (Oxford, 1995); M. G. Fry, Lloyd George and Foreign Policy (Montreal, 1977).

118

Keynes, The Collected Writings (18 October 1916), vol. 16, . 201.

119

G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang: Les Buts de guerre économique de la Première Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), . 365363, 398399.

120

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 1, . 306307.

121

Seymour (ed.), Intimate Papers, vol. 2, . 129.

122

Fry, Lloyd George, . 219.

123

Neilson, Strategy and Supply, . 191; A. Suttie, Rewriting the First World War: Lloyd George, Politics and Strategy 19141918 (London, 2005), . 85.

124

V. I. Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, in V. I. Lenin, Selected Works. M.,1963, vol. 1, . 667766; . . . , // . . . . . . 27. ., 1969, . 400.

125

, .: K. Kautsky, Der Imperialismus, Die Neue Zeit 32, no. 2 (1914), . 908922. .: A. Negri and M. Hardt, Empire (Cambridge, MA, 2001); ., . . ., 2004.

126

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94), vol. 40, . 1920. , , .: J. D. Doenecke, Nothing Less Than War: A New History of Americas Entry into World War I (Lexington, KY, 2010).

127

PWW, vol. 40, . 77.

128

P. Roberts, Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes? The Federal Reserve Systems Founding Fathers and Allied Finances in the First World War, Business History Review 72(1998) . 585620.

129

H. Nouailhat, France et Etats-Unis: Aout 1914-Avril 1917 (Paris, 1979), . 382.

130

J. Siegel, For Peace and Money (Oxford, 2014), chapter 4.

131

G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang: Les Buts de guerre économique de la Preminre Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), . 373378; J. Wormell, The Management of the Public Debt of the United Kingdom (London, 2000), . 222241.

132

J. H. von Bernstorff, My Three Years in America (New York, 1920), . 317.

133

T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), . 110. .: Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers [FRUS: Lansing Papers] (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, . 320321.

134

President Wilson and Peace, The Times (London), Friday 22 December 1916, N9; French Public Opinion, The Times (London), 23 December 1916, N7.

135

Nouailhat, France, p. 393.

136

D. French, The Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition, 19161918 (Oxford, 1995), p. 34.

137

Ibid., p. 38.

138

J. M. Keynes, Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. 16 (London, 1971).

139

The New York Times, 23 January 1917; PWW, vol. 40, p. 533539.

140

Knock, To End All Wars , , . .: N. Levin, Woodrow Wilson and World Politics (New York,1968), p. 260.

141

J. Cooper, The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, MA, 1983).

142

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (London, 1926), vol. 2, p. 412.

143

PWW, vol. 40 p. 533539.

144

Bernstorff, My Three Years, p. 390391.

145

The New York Times, 23 January 1917.

146

PWW, vol. 41, p. 1112.

147

The New York Times, 23 January 1917.

148

Labour in Session, The Times (London), 23 January 1917, N5.

149

War Aims of Labour, The Times (London), 24 January 1917, N7.

150

The New York Times, 24 January 1917.

151

Nouailhat, France, p. 398.

152

Bernstorff, My Three Years, p. 286.

153

Ibid., p. 371.

154

Aufzeichnung über Besprechung 9.1.1917, in H. Michaelis and E. Schraepler (eds), Ursachen und Folgen. Vom deutschen Zusammenbruch 1918 und 1945 (Berlin, 1958), vol. 1, p. 146147.

155

K. Erdmann (ed.), Kurt Riezler. Tagebücher, Aufsaetze, Dokumente (Göttingen, 1972),p. 403404.

156

M. Weber, Gesammelte politische Schriften (Tübingen, 1988).

157

2 1917 : FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. p p. 591592.

158

K. Burk, The Diplomacy of Finance: British Financial Missions to the United States 19141918, The Historical Journal 22, no. 2 (1979), p. 359.

159

.: M. Mariano, Defining the Atlantic Community (New York, 2010).

160

M. G. Fry, Lloyd George and Foreign Policy, vol. 1, The Education of a Statesman: 18901916 (Montreal, 1977), p. 34.

161

.: D. Lloyd George, The Great Crusade: Extracts from Speeches Delivered during the War (London, 1918).

162

R. Hanks, Georges Clemenceau and the English, The Historical Journal 45, no. 1 (2002), p. 5377.

163

PWW, vol. 42, p. 375376. , , , .: A. Tardieu, France and America: Some Experiences in Cooperation (Boston, MA, 1927).

164

PWW, vol. 41, p. 136, 256, 336337.

165

Ibid., p. 89, 94, 101, and PWW, vol. 42, p. 255.

166

PWW, vol. 41, p. 120.

167

M. Hunt, Ideology and US Foreign Policy (New Haven, CT, 1987), . 12930. , , 1789 .

168

.: Burkes Speech on Conciliation with the Colonies, in Robert Andersen (ed.) with an introduction by Woodrow Wilson (Boston, MA, 1896), . xviii.

169

W. Wilson, The Character of Democracy in the United States, in idem, An Old Master and Other Political Essays (New York, 1893), p. 114115.

170

Wilson, Democracy and Efficiency, Atlantic Monthly LXXXVII (1901), p. 289.

171

Wilson, The Character of Democracy, p. 115.

172

Ibid., p. 114.

173

PWW, vol. 40, p. 133.

174

E. Mantoux, The Carthaginian Peace (New York, 1952), p. 50.

175

: D. Watson, Georges Clemenceau: A Political Biography (London, 1976), G. Dallas, At the Heart of a Tiger: Georges Clemenceau and His World 18411929 (London, 1993).

176

G. Clemenceau, American Reconstruction, 18651870 (New York, 1969), p. 226.

177

W. Wilson, A History of the American People (New York, 1901), vol. 5, p. 4953.

178

Clemenceau, American Reconstruction, . 84.

179

1910 , : G. Clemenceau, Sur La Democratie (Paris 1930), p. 124125.

180

E. Benton, The Movementfor Peace Without Victory during the Civil War (Columbus, OH, 1918), J. McPherson, This Mighty Scourge (Oxford, 2007), p. 167186.

181

, , Ȼ, . : Poverty Bay Herald XLIV, 20 March 1917, 8. .: E. Morrison (ed.), The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, MA, 1954), p. 11621163.

182

PWW, vol. 41, p. 87.

183

FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. 2, p. 118120.

184

PWW, vol. 41, p. 201, 283.

185

Ibid., p. 123, 183184.

186

Michaelis and Schraepler, Ursachen und Folgen, vol. 1, p. 151152.

187

. : F. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution (Chicago, IL, 1981), p. 359360.

188

W. Rathenau, Politische Briefe (Dresden, 1929), p. 108.

189

A. S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era 19101917 (New York, 1954), p. 275.

190

PWW, vol. 42, p. 140148.

191

N. Saul, War and Revolution: The United States and Russia, 19141921 (Lawrence, KS, 2001), p. 9798.

192

: O. Figes, A Peoples Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 18911924 (London, 1996).

193

. : M. Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, 1917 (New-Haven, CT, 2001).

194

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 19661994), vol. 41, . 425427.

195

PWW, vol. 41, . 440, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers [FRUS: Lansing Papers] (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 1, . 626628, 636.

196

, 2 1917 .

197

. : M. Winock, Clemenceau (Paris, 2007), . 418419.

198

: N. Sukhanov, The Russian Revolution, 1917: A Personal Record (London, 1955), . 202203; . , . 2. ; ; ., 1922, . 140.

199

Sukhanov, Russian Revolution, . 24041; . , . 337.

200

W. Roobol, Tsereteli A Democrat in the Russian Revolution: A Political Biography (The Hague, 1976); M. Khoundadze, La révolution de février 1917: La social-démocratie contre le bolchevisme, Tsertelli face à Lenine (Paris, 1988); R. Abraham, Alexander Kerensky: The First Love of the Revolution (London, 1987).

201

V. I. Lenin, Letter to Pravda on 7 April 1917, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1964), vol. 24, . 1926; . . . // . . . . . . 31. ., 1969, . 113118.

202

J. H. von Bernstorff, My Three Years in America (London, 1920), . 383.

203

D. Stevenson, The Failure of Peace by Negotiation in 1917, The Historical Journal 34, no. 1 (1991) . 6586.

204

S. Miller, Burgfrieden und Klassenkampf: Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie imErsten Weltkrieg (Düsseldorf, 1974), . 283298.

205

PWW, vol. 42, MacDonald to Wilson, 29 May 1917, . 420422.

206

J. Turner, British Politics and the Great War: Coalition and Conflict 19151918 (New Haven, 1992).

207

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923 (Oxford, 1987), . 138; A. Suttie, Rewriting the First World War: Lloyd George, Politics, and Strategy, 19141918 (Houndmills, 2005), . 191194.

208

S. Carls, Louis Loucheur and the Shaping of Modern France 19161931 (Baton Rouge, FL, 1993) . 4344, 5051.

209

C. Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberalism to Fascism 18701925 (London, 1979), . 468471.

210

Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18 [hereafter IFA], eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 1, . 313.

211

M. Epstein, Matthias Erzberger and the Dilemma of German Democracy (Princeton, NJ, 1959).

212

IFA, vol. 1, . 15.

213

I. Sinanoglou, Journal de Russie dAlbert Thomas: 22 avril-19 juin 1917, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Soviétique 14, no. 1/2 (1973), . 86204, and J. Winter, Socialism and the Challenge of War (London, 1974), . 243259.

214

Wade, Russian Search for Peace, 7980.

215

FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. 2, . 332 and 338.

216

PWW, vol. 43, . 46570 and 487489; see also PWW, vol. 42, . 140141.

217

PWW, vol. 42, . 365367.

218

Ibid., . 385.

219

J. J. Wormell, Management of the National Debt in the United Kingdom, 19001932 (London, 2000), . 249259.

220

J. Termine, White Heat: The New Warfare 1914-18 (London, 1982), . 218.

221

D. French, The Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition, 19141918 (Oxford, 1995), . 101123.

222

B. Millman, Managing Domestic Dissent in First World War Britain (London, 2000).

223

V. I. Lenin, Peace Without Annexations and the Independence of Poland as Slogans of the Day in Russia, http: // www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/feb/29.htm; . . . // . . . . . . 27. ., 1969, . 247249.

224

V. I. Lenin, The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up, July 1916, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, (Moscow, 1963), vol. 22, . 320360; . . . // . . . . . . 30. ., 1969, . 1758.

225

V. I. Lenin, The Petrograd City Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. 1422 April 1917, in ibid., Collected Works (Moscow, 1964), vol. 24, . 139166; . . . (). 1422 1917 . // . . . . . . 31. ., 1969, . 237265.

226

FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. 2, . 340341; L. Bacino, Reconstructing Russia: U. S. Policy in Revolutionary Russia, 19171922 (Kent, OH, 1999).

227

L. Heenan, Russian Democracys Fatal Blunder: The Summer Offensive of 1917 (New York, 1987).

228

A. Kerensky, The Kerensky Memoirs (London, 1965), . 285; . . . . ., 1993, . 199.

229

H. Herwig, The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 19141918 (London, 1974 . 338.

230

M. Thompson, The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front 19151919 (New York, 2008), . 294327.

231

H. Hagenlücke, Deutsche Vaterlandspartei (Düsseldorf, 1997).

232

Abraham, Kerensky, . 257.

233

Ibid.,. 305.

234

R. Service, Lenin: A Biography (London, 2000), . 304; . . , 2002, . 360.

235

O. Radkey, Russia Goes to the Polls: The Election to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, 1917 (Ithaca, NY, 1989), . 63.

236

PWW, vol. 43, . 471472.

237

Ibib., . 523.

238

Ibid., . 509.

239

Ibid., . 523525.

240

O. Radkey, The Agrarian Foes of Bolshevism: Promise and Default of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries, February to October 1917 (New York, 1958), . 85.

241

Ibid., . 88.

242

W. Wheeler, China and the World War (New York, 1919), . 100.

243

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ,1966-94), vol. 41, . 108112.

244

G. Xu, China and the Great War (Cambridge, 2005), . 162163.

245

. : B. Putnam Weale, The Fight for the Republic in China (New York, 1917), . 142190; J. Kroncke, An Early Tragedy of Comparative Constitutionalism: Frank Goodnow and the Chinese Republic, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 21, no. 3 (2012), . 533590.

246

W. Kirby, The Internationalization of China: Foreign Relations at Home and Abroad in the Republican Era, The China Quarterly, . 150, Special Issue: Reappraising Republican China (1997), . 433458.

247

D. Kuhn, Die Republik China von 1912 bis 1937 (Heidelberg, 2004), . 89.

248

T. S. Chien, The Government and Politics off China (Cambridge, MA, 1950), . 7576.

249

S. Craft, V. K. Wellington Koo and the Emergence of Modern China (Lexington, KY,2004), . 4041.

250

J. Sheridan, China in Disintegration: The Republican Era in Chinese History, 19121949 (New York, 1977), . 69.

251

N. Bose, American Attitudes and Policy to the Nationalist Movement in China (19111921)(Bombay, 1970), . 105.

252

Xu, China and the Great War, . 213.

253

S. Schram (ed.), Maos Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings 19121949: The Pre-Marxist Period, vol. 1, 19121920 (New York, 1992), . 104.

254

N. Pugach, Paul S. Reinsch: Open Door Diplomat in Action (Millwood, NY, 1979), . 226.

255

PWW, vol. 41, . 177.

256

Ibid.,. 175.

257

Ibid., . 185.

258

N. Kawamura, Turbulence in the Pacific: Japanese-US Relations During World War I(Westport, CT, 2000), . 66.

259

C. Tsuzuki, The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 18251995 (Oxford, 2000).

260

F. Dickinson, War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War 19141919 (Cambridge 1999).

261

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923(Oxford, 1987), . 83; Xu, China and the Great War, . 9497.

262

K. Kawabe, The Press and Politics in Japan (Chicago, IL, 1921); F. R. Dickinson, World War I and the Triumph of a New Japan, 19191930 (Cambridge, 2013), . 52.

263

Dickinson, War and National Reinvention, . 150165.

264

M. Schiltz, The Money Doctors from Japan: Finance, Imperialism, and the Building of the Yen Bloc, 18951937 (Cambridge, MA, 2012), . 135154.

265

P. Duus, Party Rivalry and Political Change in Taisho Japan (Cambridge, 1968), . 9799.

266

P. Duus (ed.), The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6, The Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1988), . 280.

267

Weale, Fight, . 206.

268

: Pugach, Reinsch, . 226.

269

Wheeler, China and the World War, . 71.

270

PWW, vol. 41, . 186.

271

PWW, vol. 42, . 5354.

272

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers [hereafter FRUS: Lansing Papers] (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 1932; Y. Zhang, Chinain the International System, 19181920 (Basingstoke, 1991), p. 203.

273

M. Bergere, Sun Yat-Sen (Stanford, CA, 1998), p. 271.

274

Wheeler, China and the World War, p. 51.

275

American Press Tributes to Dr Wu Ting-Fang, China Review 3 (1922), p. 6972.

276

Xu, China and the Great War, p. 241.

277

PWW, vol. 42, p. 466.

278

Wheeler, China and the World War, p. 94.

279

The New York Times Current History, vol. 13, The European War (New York, 1917), p. 353.

280

Wheeler, China and the World War, p. 173174.

281

FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. 2, p. 432433.

282

Kawamura, Turbulence in the Pacific, p. 9192.

283

Xu, China and the Great War, p. 226227.

284

G. McCormack, Chang Tso-Lin in Northeast China, 19111928: China, Japan and the Manchurian Idea (Stanford, CA, 1977).

285

Dickinson, War and National Reinvention, p. 223.

286

PWW, vol. 42, p. 6064.

287

Pugach, Reinsch, p. 236.

288

M. Metzler, Lever of Empire: The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan (Berkeley, CA, 2005), p. 108109.

289

F. Fischer, Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegszielpolitik des Kaiserlichen Deutschland, 1914-18 (Düsseldorf, 1961).

290

J. Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace, March 1918 (London, 1938).

291

Ober Ost, , : V. Liulevicius,War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I (Cambridge, 2000). (Ober Ost . Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten. . . .)

292

V. I. Lenin, The Debate on Self-Determination Summed Up, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1964), vol. 22, p. 320360; . . . // . . . . . . 30. ., 1969, . 1758.

293

V. I. Lenin, Statistics and Sociology, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1964), vol. 23, p. 271277; . . . // . . . . - . 30. . 349356.

294

T. Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 15691999 (New Haven, CT, 2003).

295

Hitch in Negotiations: German Delegates Point to Peoples Who Desire, The New York Times, 31 December 1917.

296

Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18 [hereafter IFA], eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 1, p. 213402.

297

Heinz Hagenlücke, Deutsche Vaterlandspartei (Düsseldorf, 1996).

298

IFA, vol. 1, p. 635.

299

W. Ribhegge, Frieden für Europa: Die Politik der deutschen Reichstagsmehrheit, 19171918(Essen, 1988), p. 228229.

300

M. Llanque, Demokratisches Denken im Krieg: Die deutsche Debatte im Ersten Weltkrieg (Berlin, 2000), p. 207.

301

A. Vogt, Oberst Max Bauer, Generalstabsoffizier im Zwielicht, 18691929 (Osnabrück, W4) p. 108.

302

K. Erdmann (ed.), Kurt Riezler: Tagebücher, Aufsaetze, Dokumente (Göttingen, 1972).

303

W. Ribhegge, Frieden für Europa. Die Politik der deutschen Reichstagsmehrheit 1917/18 (Berlin, 1988), p. 228229.

304

P. Gatrell, A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana, IN, 2005).

305

Hagenlücke, Vaterlandspartei, p. 204.

306

I. Geiss, Der polnische Grenzstreifen 19141918: Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Kriegszielpolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg (Lübeck, 1960), p. 129.

307

. : Ribhegge, Frieden, p. 173175. .: ibid., p. 228229.

308

P. Theiner, Sozialer Liberalismus und deutsche Weltpolitik. Friedrich Naumann im Wilhelminischen Deutschland (18601919) (Baden-Baden, 1983), p. 242258.

309

M. Berg, Gustav Stresemann und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika: weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und Revisionspolitik, 19071929 (Baden-Baden, 1990), p. 43.

310

IFA, vol. 1, p. 11.

311

R. Service, Lenin: A Biography (London, 2000), p. 321325; . . , 2002, . 364.

312

Fischer, Griff, p. 299300.

313

Fischer, Griff, p. 299300.

314

J. Snell, The Russian Revolution and the German Social Democratic Party in 1917, Slavic Review 15, no. 3 (1956), p. 33950; IFA, vol. 1, p. 631632.

315

S. Miller, Burgfrieden und Klassenkampf: Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie im Ersten Weltkrieg (Düsseldorf, 1974), p. 228229.

316

K. Epstein, Matthias Erzberger and the Dilemma of German Democracy (Princeton, NJ, 1959), p. 219220, 237.

317

. : M. Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 18701960 (Cambridge, 2002), p. 172.

318

Miller, Burgfrieden, p. 351.

319

S. D. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, NJ, 1999).

320

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest, p. 117120.

321

G. Kennan, Russia Leaves the War: Soviet-American Relations, 19171920 (Princeton, NJ), vol. 1, p. 136.

322

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston, MA, 19261928), vol. 3, p. 264285.

323

W. Hahlweg (ed.), Der Friede von Brest-Litowsk. in unverffentlichter Band aus dem Werk des Untersuchungsauschusses der deutschen verfassungsgebenden Nationalver-sammung und des deutschen Reichstages (Düsseldorf, 1971), p. 150153.

324

A. May, The Passing of the Habsburg Monarchy, 19141918 (Philadelphia, PA, 1966), vol. 1, p.458.

325

IFA, vol. 2, p. 86.

326

: Hahlweg, Der Friede, p. 176.

327

. : V. I. Lenin, Theses on the Question of the Immediate Conclusion of a Separate and Annexationist Peace, 7 January 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 26, p. 442450. . . . // . . . . . . 35. ., 1974, . 243252.

328

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest, p. 145.

329

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923 (Oxford, 1987), p. 160.

330

E. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (Oxford, 2007), p. 1953.

331

B. Unterberger, The United States, Revolutionary Russia, and the Rise of Czechoslovakia (Chapel HILL, NC 1989) p. 9495.

332

, , .: A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 19661994), vol. 45, p. 534539.

333

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 348.

334

: Kennan, Russia Leaves the War, p. 255272.

335

C. Warvariv, America and the Ukrainian National Cause, 19171920, in T. Hunczak (ed.), The Ukraine 19171921: A Study in Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1977), p. 366372.

336

PWW, vol. 45, p. 534539.

337

D. Woodward, Trial by Friendship: Anglo-American Relations, 19171918 (Lexington, KY, 1993 p. 153154.

338

B. Unterberger, Woodrow Wilson and the Russian Revolution, in A. Link (ed.), Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World (Chapel Hill, NC, 1982), p. 54.

339

J. Reshetar, The Ukrainian Revolution, 19171920: A Study in Nationalism (Princeton, NJ, 1952 p. 5354.

340

W. Stojko, Ukrainian National Aspirations and the Russian Provisional Government, in T. Hunczak (ed.), The Ukraine 19171921: A Study in Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1977).

341

P. Borowsky, Deutsche Ukrainepolitik 1918 unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Wirtschaftsfragen (Lübeck, 1970), p. 2125.

342

E. Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, 19171923 (London, 1966), vol. 1, p. 301.

343

W. Hahlweg (ed.), Der Friede von Brest-Litowsk: Ein unverffentlichter Band aus dem Werk des Untersuchungsausschusses der deutschen verfassunggebenden Nationalversammlung und des deutschen Reichstages (Düsseldorf, 1971), p. 299.

344

J. Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace, March 1918 (London, 1938), p. 161163.

345

, 1919 . , , , , ; .: Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs (eds), Weber: Political Writings (Cambridge, 1994), P. 10.

346

M. D. Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, 1917 (New Haven, CT, 2001), p. 262273.

347

W. H. Roobol, Tsereteli A Democrat in the Russian Revolution: A Political Biography (The Hague, 1977), p. 181182.

348

J. Bunyan and H. Fisher (eds), The Bolshevik Revolution 19171918: Documents and Materials (Stanford, CA, 1934), p. 369380.

349

M. Gorky, Untimely Thoughts (New Haven, CT, 1995), p. 124125; . . , . . 19171918 .: 9 5 , . 6 (220), 9 (22) 1918 .

350

R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990), p. 554; . , . 2. ., 2005, . 270.

351

V. I. Lenin, People from Another World, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 26, p. 431433; . . . // . . . . . . 35. ., 1969, . 232237.

352

J. Siegel, For Peace and Money (Oxford, 2014, forthcoming), chapter 5.

353

C. Bell and B. Elleman, Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective (London, 2003), p. 4565.

354

P. Scheidemann, Der Zusammenbruch (Berlin, 1921), p. 7071.

355

Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18, eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 2, p. 188193.

356

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk, p. 209211.

357

K. Liebknecht, Politische Aufzeichnungen aus seinem Nachlass (Berlin, 1921), 51, cited in L. Trotsky, My Life (New York, 1960), p. 378.

358

G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang: Les Buts de guerre économique de la Première Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), p. 661663.

359

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk, p. 171.

360

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 591; . , . 320.

361

, , : V. I. Lenin, Peace or War, 23 February 1918, V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 27, 3639; . . . ? // . . . . . . 35. ., 1969, . 366368.

362

R. Debo, Revolution and Survival: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia 19171918 (Toronto, 1979), p. 120121.

363

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk, p. 226229.

364

IFA, vol. 2, p. 250.

365

Ibid., p. 163.

366

. : W. Baumgart and K. Repgen, Brest-Litovsk (Göttingen, 1969), p. 5866.

367

: bolshewiki tiger, kesseltreiben abschiessen.

368

Baumgart and Repgen, Brest-Litovsk, p. 61.

369

Ibid., p. 62.

370

Ibid., p. 66.

371

R. von Kühlmann, Erinnerungen (Heidelberg, 1948), p. 548.

372

I. Geiss, Der polnische Grenzstreifen, 19141918. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Kriegszielpolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg (Lübeck, 1960), p. 132134.

373

M. Hoffmann, War Diaries and Other Papers (London, 1929), vol. 1, p. 205.

374

R. Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime (New York, 1994), p. 2728, 52.

375

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 588; . , . 360.

376

Debo, Revolution, p. 124146.

377

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk, p. 245.

378

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 594; . , . 364.

379

V. I. Lenin, Political Report of the Bolshevik Central Committee, 7 March 1918. Seventh Congress of the Russian Communist Party: Verbatim Report 68 March 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 27, 85-158; . . . () // . . . . . . 36. ., 1969, . 176.

380

R. Service, Lenin: A Political Life (Bloomington, IN, 1985), p. 327330.

381

V. I. Lenin, Extraordinary Fourth All-Russia Congress of Soviets, 1416 March 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 27, p. 169201; . . . IV . 1416 1918 . // . . . . . . 36. ., 1969, . 89123.

382

W. Ribhegge, Frieden für Europa: Die Politik der deutschen Reichstagsmehrheit, 1917-18 (Essen, 1988), p. 264265.

383

Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18, eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 2, p. 285291; S. Miller, Burgfrieden und Klassenkampf: Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie im Ersten Weltkrieg (Düsseldorf, 1974), p. 368.

384

Wheeler-Bennett, Brest-Litovsk, p. 304307.

385

Ribhegge, Frieden, p. 268.

386

IFA, vol. 2, p. 303.

387

Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall (London, 2011), p. 42, 5354.

388

W. Churchill, The World Crisis, 19161918 (New York, 1927), vol. 2, p. 132.

389

W. Goerlitz (ed.), Regierte Der Kaiser? Kriegstagebücher, Aufzeichnungen und Briefe des Chefs des Marinekabinetts Admiral George Alexander von Mueller, 19141918 (Göttingen, 1959), p. 366.

390

Erich Ludendorff, My War Memories (London, 1919), vol. 2, p. 602.

391

Max von Baden, Erinnerungen und Dokumente (Stuttgart, 1968), p. 242243.

392

W. Baumgart, Deutsche Ostpolitik 1918. Von Brest-Litowsk bis zum Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges (Vienna and Munich, 1966), p. 40. ( : . . . 14 1918 .// . . . . . . 36. ., 1969, . 328. . . .)

393

S. F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography 18881938 (London 1974).

394

The Chief Task of Our Day, Izvestia VTsIK, no. 46, 12 March 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 27, p. 159163. ( : . . . 8 1918 . // . . . . . . 36. ., 1969, . 47. . . .)

395

: Seventh Congress of the Russian Communist Party: Verbatim Report, 68 March 1918, in ibid., 85-158; . . . () // . . . . . . 36. ., 1969, . 176.

396

Baumgart, Deutsche Ostpolitk, p. 36. .

397

R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990), p. 603605; . , . 347349.

398

P. E. Dunscomb, Japans Siberian Intervention, 19181922 (Plymouth, 2011), p. 40.

399

F. R. Dickinson, War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War, 19141919 (Cambridge, MA, 1999 p. 57 and 197.

400

J. Morley, The Japanese Thrust into Siberia, 1918 (New York, 1957), p. 53.

401

Dickinson, War, p. 183184.

402

Dunscomb, Siberian Intervention, p. 4243.

403

Dickinson, War, p. 196.

404

S. Naoko, Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 (London, 2003), p. 109.

405

C. Tsuzuki, The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 18251995 (Oxford, 2000), p. 206.

406

G. Kennan, Russia Leaves the War: Soviet-American Relations, 19171920 (Princeton, NJ), vol. 1, p. 272273.

407

B. M. Unterberger, Woodrow Wilson and the Russian Revolution, in Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, ed. Arthur S. Link (Chapel Hill, NC, 1982), p. 61.

408

Kennan, Soviet-American, p. 480.

409

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston, MA, 19261928), vol. 3, P.99.

410

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 598599; . , . 340.

411

Morley, The Japanese Thrust, p. 140141.

412

N. Kawamura, Turbulence in the Pacific: Japanese-US Relations during World War I (Westport, CT, 2000), p. 116; A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 19661994).

413

, , , , .: Seymour (ed.), Intimate Papers, vol. 3, p. 415.

414

U. Trumpener, Germany and the Ottoman Empire 19141918 (Princeton, NJ, 1968), p. 249.

415

. 18 , : Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18 [IFA], eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf,1959) 2, p. 410.

416

R. G. Hovanissian, Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918 (Berkeley, CA, 1967), p. 175.

417

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 181.

418

p. 193194.

419

Hovannisian, Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 184.

420

, .: IFA, vol. 2, p. 519.

421

Trumpener, Germany, p. 256257.

422

R. G. Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation (Bloomington, IN, 1994), p. 192.

423

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 269.

424

P. Borowsky, Deutsche Ukrainepolitik, 1918 (Lübeck 1970).

425

, IFA, vol. 2, p. 407.

426

, , . : IFA, vol. 2, p. 404.

427

Max Hoffmann, War Diaries and Other Papers (London, 1929), vol. 1, p. 209.

428

T. Hunczak, The Ukraine under Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi, in idem., The Ukraine: A Study in Revolution, 19171921 (Cambridge, MA, 1977), p. 6181.

429

A. F. Upton, The Finnish Revolution 19171918 (Minneapolis, MN, 1980).

430

C. J. Smith, Finland and the Russian Revolution 19171922 (Athens, GA, 1958), p. 78.

431

Stanley G. Payne, Civil War in Europe 19051940 (Cambridge, 2011), p. 30.

432

Pipes, Russian Revolution, 612615; . , . 356.

433

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 37.

434

R. H. Ullman, Anglo-Soviet Relations 19171921, vol. 1, Intervention and the War (Princeton, NJ, 1961), p. 177.

435

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 267268.

436

V. I. Lenin, Left-Wing Childishness, written April 1918, first published 9, 10, 11 May 1918 in Pravda, nos 88, 89, 90; Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1972), vol. 27, p. 323334; . . . // . .. . . . 36. ., 1969, . 283314.

437

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 264.

438

Russian American Relations March 1917-March 1920 (New York, 1920), Doc. 73, p. 152153.

439

Ibid., Doc. 91, p. 209.

440

D. W. McFadden, Alternative Paths: Soviets and Americans 19171920 (Oxford, 1993),p. 122.

441

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 70.

442

Ibid., p. 129.

443

Ibid., p. 183.

444

K. Epstein, Matthias Erzberger and the Dilemma of German Democracy (Princeton, NJ, 1959) p. 239240.

445

Borowsky, Deutsche Ukrainepolitik, p. 190192.

446

.: Gothein, IFA, vol. 2, p. 289.

447

.: IFA,vol. 2, p. 388.

448

Epstein, Erzberger, p. 242.

449

W. Baumgart and K. Repgen (eds), Brest-Litovsk (Göttingen, 1969), p. 100. , .:IFA, vol. 2, p. 316317.

450

R. H. Ullman, Anglo-Soviet Relations, 19171921 (Princeton, NJ, 1962), vol. 1, p. 169.

451

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston, MA, 1926-8), vol. 3, p. 410.

452

R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990), p. 558565; . , . 2. ., 2005, . 291.

453

B. M. Unterberger, The United States, Revolutionary Russia and the Rise of Czechoslovakia (Chapel Hill, NC, 1989), p. 124127, notes to p. 150158.

454

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 126128, 139141 and 364.

455

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923 (Oxford, 1987), p. 186.

456

. : Unterberger, United States, p. 235.

457

. : T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), p. 161.

458

I. Somin, Stillborn Crusade: The Tragic Failure of Western Intervention in the Russian Civil War 19181920 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1996), p. 40.

459

Ullman, Anglo-Soviet, p. 222.

460

Ibid., p. 305.

461

Ibid., p. 221222.

462

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 633635; . , p. 380.

463

W. Baumgart, Deutsche Ostpolitik 1918. Von Brest-Litowsk bis zum Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges (Vienna and Munich, 1966), p. 85.

464

Ibid., p. 8586.

465

F. Fischer, Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegszielpolitik des Kaiserlichen Deutschland, 1914-18, (Düsseldorf, 1961), p. 836840.

466

Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18 [IFA], eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959) vol 2, p. 400401.

467

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 139.

468

M. Kitchen, The Silent Dictatorship: The Politics of the German High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, 19161918 (London, 1976), p. 204.

469

IFA, vol. 2, p. 413418.

470

. : W. Ribhegge, Frieden für Europa: Die Politik der deutschen Reichstagsmehrheit, 19171918 (Essen, 1988), p. 299.

471

IFA, vol. 2, p. 447465.

472

Ibid., p. 426428.

473

Ibid., p. 517.

474

Ibid., 25. p. 474.

475

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 638639; . , . 372.

476

Ibid, p. 653656; , . 403405; Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 232.

477

A. J. Mayer, Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions (Princeton, NJ, 2000), p. 273274.

478

Ibid., p. 277.

479

Lenin speech to All-Russia Central Executive Committee, Fifth Convocation, 29 July 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1965), vol. 28, p. 1733; . . . , , - 29 1918 . // . . . . . . 37. ., 1969, . 119.

480

K. Helfferich, Der Weltkrieg (Berlin, 1919), vol. 3, 466.

481

Rosa Luxemburg, The Russian Tragedy, Spartacus, no. 11, 1918.

482

IFA, vol. 2, p. 505506.

483

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 109.

484

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 664666; . , . 410411; Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 111113.

485

: G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang. Les Buts de guerre économique de la Premiure Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), p. 706708, . , .

486

M. Kitchen, The Silent Dictatorship: The Politics of the German High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, 19161918 (New York, 1976), p. 242; Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 201.

487

Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 666; . , . 411.

488

R. Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime (New York, 1994), p. 5355; . , . 3. ., 2005, . 7071.

489

IFA, vol. 2, p. 476479.

490

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 313315.

491

IFA, vol. 2, p. 474479, 500501.

492

Helfferich, WeltkriegIII, p. 490492.

493

IFA, vol. 2, p. 517.

494

Baumgart, Ostpolitik, p. 318319.

495

C. Tsuzuki, The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 18251995 (Oxford, 2000), p. 206.

496

: Pipes, Russian Revolution, p. 668670; . , . 412413, .

497

D. Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918 (London, 2011).

498

, 1918 , .: Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18, eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 2, p. 773778.

499

M. Knox, To the Threshold of Power, 1922/33, vol. 1, Origins and Dynamics of the Fascist and National Socialist Dictatorships (Cambridge, 2007), p. 143231.

500

L. V. Smith, S. Audoin-Rouzeau and A. Becker, France and the Great War (Cambridge, 2003).

501

P. OBrien, Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, The Soldier, The Fascist(Oxford, 2005).

502

G. Clemenceau, Discours de Guerre, Chambre des Députés, Assemblée Nationale, Paris (8 March 1918).

503

D. Watson, Georges Clemenceau: A Political Biography (London, 1976), p. 275292.

504

G. Clemenceau, Demosthenes (New York, 1926).

505

W. A. McDougall, Frances Rhineland Diplomacy 19141924 (Princeton, NJ, 1978), p. 1725.

506

H. J. Burgwyn, The Legend of the Mutilated Victory: Italy, the Great War, and the Paris Peace Conference, 19151919 (Westport, CT, 1993).

507

C. Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberation to Fascism, 18701925 (London, 1967), p. 485.

508

D. Rossini, Woodrow Wilson and the American Myth in Italy (Cambridge, MA, 2008), p. 125131.

509

, , . : L. Hautecoeur, LItalie sous le Ministère Orlando 19171919 (Paris, 1919), p. 83110.

510

C. Killinger, Gaetano Salvemini: A Biography (Westport, CT, 2002).

511

K. J. Calder, Britain and New Europe 19141918 (Cambridge, 1976), p. 180182.

512

G. A. Heywood, Failure of a Dream: Sidney Sonnino and the Rise and Fall of Liberal Italy 18471922 (Florence, 1999).

513

H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (London, 1933), p. 167.

514

S. Di Scala, Vittorio Orlando (London, 2010), 119; Rossini, Woodrow Wilson, . 142146.

515

: J. Darwin, The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World System, 18301970 (Cambridge, 2009).

516

J. Grigg, Lloyd George: War Leader, 19161918 (London, 2002), . 61.

517

: R. Fanning, Fatal Path: British Government and Irish Revolution, 19101922 (London, 2013).

518

J. P. Finnan, John Redmond and Irish Unity, 19121918 (Syracuse, NY, 2004).

519

C. Duff, Six Days to Shake an Empire (London, 1966).

520

J. S. Mortimer, Annie Besant and India 19131917, Journal of Contemporary History 18, no. 1 (January 1983), . 6178.

521

H. F. Owen, Negotiating the Lucknow Pact, The Journal of Asian Studies 31, no. 3 (May 1972) . 561587.

522

A. Rumbold, Watershed in India, 19141922 (London, 1979), . 64.

523

Ibid., . 73.

524

B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj, 19141947: The Economics of Decolonization in India (London, 1979).

525

Rumbold, Watershed, . 7172.

526

P. Robb, The Government of India and Annie Besant, Modern Asian Studies 10, no.1 (1976) . 107130.

527

H. Owens, The Indian Nationalist Movement, c. 19121922: Leadership, Organisation and Philosophy (New Delhi, 1990), . 85.

528

R. Kumar, Annie Besants Rise to Power in Indian Politics, 19141917 (New Delhi, 1981), . 115.

529

B. Millman, Managing Domestic Dissent in First World War Britain (London, 2000), . 170.

530

H. C. G. Matthew, R. I. McKibbin and J. A. Kay, The Franchise Factor in the Rise of the Labour Party, The English Historical Review 91, no. 361 (October 1976), . 723752.

531

: M. Pugh, Electoral Reform in War and Peace, 19061918 (London, 1978).

532

Ibid., . 103.

533

J. Lawrence, Forging a Peaceable Kingdom: War, Violence, and Fear of Brutalization in Post-First World War Britain, Journal of Modern History 75, no. 3 (2003), . 557589.

534

D. H. Close, The Collapse of Resistance to Democracy: Conservatives, Adult Suffrage, and Second Chamber Reform, 19111928, The Historical Journal 20, no. 4 (December 1977) . 893918.

535

Pugh, Electoral Reform, . 136.

536

S. S. Holton, Feminism and Democracy: Womens Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, 19001918 (Cambridge, 1986), . 149.

537

Pugh, Electoral Reform, . 75.

538

Darwin, Empire Project, . 353.

539

Ibid . 348.

540

Rumbold, Watershed, . 88.

541

S. D. Waley, Edwin Montagu: A Memoir and an Account of his Visits to India (London, 1964 . 130134.

542

R. Danzig, The Announcement of August 20th, 1917, The Journal of Asian Studies 28, no. 1 (November 1968), . 1937; R. J. Moore, Curzon and Indian Reform, Modern Asian Studies 27, no. 4 (October 1993), . 719740.

543

Waley, Montagu, . 135.

544

Ibid., . 137138.

545

H. Tinker, The Foundations of Local Self-Government in India, Pakistan and Burma (London, 1954), . 112161.

546

: E. Montagu and F. Chelmsford, The Constitution of India Under British Rule: The Montagu-Chelmsford Report (New Delhi, 1992).

547

D. A. Low, Lion Rampant: Essays in the Study of British Imperialism (London, 1973).

548

T. R. Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj (Cambridge, 1997), . 225226.

549

M. Gandhi, Collected Works (New Delhi, 1999), vol. 17, Appeal for Enlistment 22 June 1918.

550

S. Sarkar, Modern India, 18851947 (Madras, 1983), . 150.

551

Kumar, Annie Besant, . 112113.

552

, , ; .: E. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (Oxford, 2007), . 8497.

553

S. Hartley, The Irish Question as a Problem in British Foreign Policy, 19141918 (Basingstoke, 1987), 107.

554

Finnan, Redmond, . 190.

555

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94), vol. 42, . 2425 and 4142.

556

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 1, .316.

557

Hartley, The Irish Question, . 147148.

558

Ibid., . 153.

559

PWW, vol. 42, . 542. , , : PWW, vol. 43, . 360361.

560

Hartley, Irish Question, . 134.

561

Ibid., . 175.

562

Ibid., . 178.

563

House of Lords parliamentary debates, May 1917, . 170.

564

Hartley, Irish Question, . 172 191.

565

J. Gallagher, Nationalisms and the Crisis of Empire, 19191922, Modern Asian Studies 15, no. 3 . 355358.

566

E. Monroe, Britains Moment in the Middle East, 19141971 (Baltimore, MD, 1981), . 2635.

567

B. C. Bush, Britain, India, and the Arabs, 19141921 (Berkeley, CA, 1971).

568

H. Luthy, India and East Africa: Imperial Partnership at the End of the First World War, Journal of Contemporary History 6, no. 2 (1971), . 5585.

569

D. R. Woodward, Trial by Friendship: Anglo-American Relations, 19171918 (Lexington, 1993) . 174.

570

J. Kimche, The Unromantics: The Great Powers and the Balfour Declaration (London, 1968), . 66.

571

J. Renton, The Zionist Masquerade: The Birth of the Anglo-Zionist Alliance, 19141918 (Houndsmill, 2007); L. Stein, The Balfour Declaration (London, 1961).

572

Levene, The Balfour Declaration: A Case of Mistaken Identity, The English Historical Review 107, no. 422 (January 1992), p. 5477.

573

J. Reinharz, The Balfour Declaration and Its Maker: A Reassessment, The Journal of Modern History 64, no. 3 (September 1992), . 455499; R. N. Lebow, Woodrow Wilson and the Balfour Declaration, The Journal of Modern History 40, no. 4 (December 1968), . 501523.

574

Grigg, Lloyd George, . 308309.

575

Ibid., . 336337.

576

D. Lloyd George, The Great Crusade: Extracts from Speeches Delivered During the War (New York, 1918), . 17686 (5 January 1918).

577

C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston, MA, 1926-8), vol. 3, . 341.

578

W. L. Silber, When Washington Shut down Wall Street: The Great Financial Crisis of 1914 and the Origins of Americas Monetary Supremacy (Princeton, NJ, 2007).

579

H. Strachan, The First World War, vol. 1, To Arms (Oxford, 2001).

580

V. Lenin, Left-Wing Childishness, April 1918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, vol. 27 (Moscow, 1972), 323334; . . . // . . . . . . 35. ., 1969, . 76.

581

, , , : A. Dauphin-Meunier, Henri de Man et Walther Rathenau, Revue Européenne des Sciences Sociales 12, no. 31 (1974), . 103120.

582

G. Feldman, Army, Industry and Labour in Germany, 19141918 (Oxford, 1992).

583

T. S. Broadberry and M. Harrison (eds), The Economics of World War I (Cambridge, 2005); K. D. Stubbs, Race to the Front: The Material Foundations of Coalition Strategy in the Great War, 19141918 (Westport, CT, 2002).

584

J. Termine, White Heat: The New Warfare 19141918 (London, 1982).

585

D. L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford (Detroit, MI, 1976), . 7077, 9395.

586

R. Alvarado and S. Alvarado, Drawing Conclusions on Henry Ford (Detroit, MI, 2001), . 82.

587

C. S. Maier, In Search of Stability: Explorations in Historical Political Economy (Cambridge, 1987), . 1969; J. Herf, Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich (Cambridge, 1984).

588

D. R. Woodward, Trial by Friendship: Anglo-American Relations, 19171918 (Lexington, 1993) . 130149.

589

Y.-H. Nouailhat, France et Etats-Unis: août 1914-avril 1917 (Paris, 1979), . 250262.

590

, .: B. Crowell, Americas Munitions 19171918 (Washington, DC, 1919).

591

J. H. Morrow, The Great War in the Air: Military Aviation from 1909 to 1921 (Washington DC 1993), . 338.

592

Woodward, Trial by Friendship, . 118119.

593

R. Sicotte, Economic Crisis and Political Response: The Political Economy of the Shipping Act of 1916, The Journal of Economic History 59, no. 4 (December 1999), . 861884.

594

E. E. Day, The American Merchant Fleet: A War Achievement, a Peace Problem, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 34, no. 4 (August 1920), . 567606.

595

Woodward, Trial by Friendship, . 136.

596

Ibid., . 155, 159.

597

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, . 205.

598

D. Rossini, Woodrow Wilson and the American Myth in Italy (Cambridge, MA, 2008), 100103.

599

A. Salter, Allied Shipping Control (Oxford, 1921).

600

F. Duchne, Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence (New York, 1994).

601

: A. Kaspi, Le Temps des Américains. Le concours américain à la France en 19171918 (Paris, 1976), . 25365, victoire ignorée.

602

G. D. Feldman, Die Demobilmachung und die Sozialordnung der Zwischenkriegszeit in Europa, Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 9. Jahrg., vol. 2 (1983), . 156177.

603

E. Roussel, Jean Monnet 18881979 (Paris, 1996), . 67.

604

C. P. Parrini, Heir to Empire: United States Economic Diplomacy, 19161923 (Pittsburgh, PA, 1969) . 3132.

605

J. J. Safford, Wilsonian Maritime Diplomacy (New Brunswick, NJ, 1978), . 149.

606

Salter, Allied Shipping, . 165174.

607

W. Churchill, The World Crisis, 19161918 (London, 1927), vol. 2, . 195.

608

R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Hopes Betrayed, 18831920 (London, 1983), vol. 1, . 342; K. Burk, Britain, America and the Sinews of War (Boston, MA, 1985).

609

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94) vol. 43, . 136.

610

Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes, vol. 1, . 345.

611

R. Ally, Gold and Empire: The Bank of England and South Africas Gold Producers, 18861926 (Johannesburg, 1994), . 31.

612

PWW, vol 43, . 39091, 424425.

613

Ibid., . 34 44 and 223-30, 326333.

614

Ally, Gold and Empire, . 3441.

615

D. Kumar (ed.), The Cambridge Economic History of India (Cambridge, 1983); M. Goswami, Producing India (Chicago, IL, 2004), . 209241.

616

H. S. Jevons, The Future of Exchange and the Indian Currency (London, 1922), . 190200.

617

H. Tinker, The Foundations of Local Self-Government in India, Pakistan and Burma (London 1954) . 96.

618

G. Balachandran, John Bullions Empire: Britains Gold Problem and India Between the Wars (London, 1996), . 5459.

619

Jevons, The Future, . 206; F. L. Israel, The Fulfillment of Bryans Dream: Key Pittman and Silver Politics, 19181933, Pacific Historical Review 30, no. 4 (November 1961), . 359380.

620

Balachandran, John Bullions Empire, . 58.

621

I. Abdullah, Rethinking the Freetown Crowd: The Moral Economy of the 1919 Strikes and Riot in Sierra Leone, Canadian Journal of African Studies 28, no. 2 (1994), . 197218.

622

T Yoshikuni, Strike Action and Self-Help Associations: Zimbabwean Worker Protest and Culture after World War I, Journal of Southern African Studies 15, no. 3 (1989), . 440468.

623

M. A. Rifaat, The Monetary System of Egypt: An Inquiry into its History and Present Working (London, 1935).

624

A. E. Crouchley, The Economic Development of Modern Egypt (London, 1938).

625

P. H. Kratoska, The British Empire and the Southeast Asian Rice Crisis of 19191921, Modern Asian Studies 24, no. 1 (February 1990), . 115146.

626

M. Lewis, Rioters and Citizens: Mass Protest in Imperial Japan (Berkeley, CA, 1990).

627

J. C. Ott, When Wall Street Met Main Street: The Quest for an Investors Democracy (Cambridge, MA, 2011), . 64135.

628

J. C. Hollander, Certificates of Indebtedness in Our War Financing, The Journal of Political Economy 26, no. 9 (November 1918), . 901908; C. Snyder, War Loans, Inflation and the High Cost of Living, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 75 (January 1918), . 140146; A. Barton Hepburn, J. H. Hollander and B. M. Anderson, Jr, Discussion of Government s Financial Policies in Relation to Inflation, Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York 9, no. 1 (June 1920), . 5566.

629

A. H. Hansen, The Sequence in War Prosperity and Inflation, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (May 1920), . 234246.

630

C. Gilbert, American Financing of World War I (Westport, CT, 1970), . 200219.

631

E. B. Woods, Have Wages Kept Pace with the Cost of Living?, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (May 1920), . 135147.

632

B. D. Mudgett, The Course of Profits during the War, and B. M. Manly, Have Profits Kept Pace with the Cost of Living?, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (May 1920), . 148162.

633

J. D. Morrow, The Great War: An Imperial History (London, 2005), p. 246247.

634

D. Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918 (London, 2011).

635

W. Ribhegge, Frieden für Europa: Die Politik der deutschen Reichstagsmehrheit, 19171918 (Essen, 1988), p. 312.

636

, 1918 , : Der Interfraktioneller Ausschuss, 1917/18 [IFA], eds E. Matthias and R. Morsey (Düsseldorf, 1959), vol. 2, p. 494788.

637

IFA, vol. 2, p. 541.

638

Michael Geyer, Insurrectionary Warfare: The German Debate about a Levée en Masse in October 1918, TheJournal of Modern History 73, no. 3 (September 2001), p. 459527.

639

K. Helfferich, Der Weltkrieg (Berlin, 1919), vol. 3, p. 536537.

640

IFA, vol. 2, p. 485.

641

M. Erzberger, Der Völkerbund. Der Weg zum Weltfrieden (Berlin, 1918).

642

IFA, vol. 2, p. 615616.

643

Ibid., p. 626627.

644

F. K. Scheer, Die Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (18921933): Organisation, Ideologie und Politische Ziele. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Pazifismus in Deutschland (Frankfurt, 1981), p. 331332.

645

IFA, vol. 2, p. 530.

646

Ibid., p. 779782.

647

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94), vol. 42, p. 433; C. Seymour (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston, MA, 1928), vol. 3, p. 130138.

648

PWW, vol. 58, p. 172.

649

D. R. Woodward, Trial by Friendship: Anglo-American Relations, 19171918 (Lexington, 1993) p. 210.

650

Ibid., p. 218219.

651

PWW, vol. 53, p. 338.

652

PWW, vol. 51, p. 415.

653

C. M. Andrew and A. S. Kanya, France, Africa, and the First World War, The Journal of African History 19, no. 1 (1978), p. 1123.

654

, , . . : Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 288.

655

PWW, vol. 43, p. 172174.

656

: J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919), p. 60; . . . // . . , . . ., 2007, . 465.

657

, , , , . .: H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (New York, 1965) p. 8290.

658

P. Krüger, Die Reparationen und das Scheitern einer deutschen Verständigungs-politik auf der Pariser Friedenskonferenz im Jahre 1919, Historische Zeitschrift 221, no. 2 (October 1975), p. 326372.

659

T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), p. 170172.

660

Ibid., p. 176.

661

.: E. Morison (ed.), The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, MA, 1951), vol. 1, p. 378381. , , .: Ibid., vol. 1, p. 289.

662

Knock, To End All Wars, p. 176. . : C. Redmond (ed.), Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge 18841918 (New York, 1925), vol. 2, p. 542543.

663

Knock, To End All Wars, p. 180.

664

Ibid., p. 178.

665

J. M. Cooper, Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations (Cambridge, 2001), p. 39.

666

Redmond, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. 1, p. 394395.

667

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 19661994) vol 53, p. 366.

668

R. Olson, The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 18801925 (Austin, TX, 1989), p. 2829.

669

R. M. Coury, The Making of an Egyptian Arab Nationalist: The Early Years of Azzam Pasha, 18931936 (Reading, 1998) p. 159.

670

E. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (Oxford, 2007).

671

M. Geyer, Zwischen Krieg und Nachkrieg, in A. Gallus (ed.), Die vergessene Revolution (Göttingen, 2010), p. 187222.

672

A. Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles, 19181919 (London, 1968).

673

V. I. Lenin, Report at a Joint Session of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee: The Moscow Soviet, Factory Committees and Trade Unions, October 221918, in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow, 1974), vol. 28, p. 113126; . . . 29 1918 . // . . . . . . 37. ., 1969, . 118.

674

E. Mawdsley, The Russian Civil War (London, 2007).

675

M. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vol. 4, The Stricken World, 19171922 (London, 1975), p. 234.

676

J. M. Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and the Versailles Peace (Princeton, NJ, 1966).

677

: Document 129 in C. K. Cumming and W. W. Pettit (eds), Russian-American Relations, March 1917-March 1920 (New York, 1920), p. 284289.

678

Gilbert, Churchill, vol. 4, p. 230.

679

M. J. Carley, Episodes from the Early Cold War: Franco-Soviet Relations, 19171927, Europe-Asia Studies 52, no. 7 (November 2000), p. 1, 276.

680

Document 127, Russian-American Relations, p. 281.

681

1923 ., 1918 ., : G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang: Les Buts deguerre économique de la Première Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), p. 745.

682

R. Luxemburg, What Does the Spartacus League Want?, Die Rote Fahne, 14 December 1918, and The Russian Revolution (written 1918, published Berlin, 1922).

683

K. Kautsky, Terrorismus und Kommunismus (Berlin, 1919).

684

H. A. Winkler, Arbeiter und Arbeiterbewegung in der Weimarer Republik (Berlin, 1984), vol. 1.

685

R. Luxemburg, The National Assembly, Die Rote Fahne, 20 November 1918.

686

G. D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 19141924 (Oxford, 1997).

687

C. Mathews, The Economic Origins of the Noskepolitik, Central European History 27, no. 1 (1994), p. 6586.

688

G. Noske, Von Kiel bis Kapp. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Revolution (Berlin, 1920), p. 68.

689

W. Wette, Gustav Noske (Düsseldorf, 1987), p. 289321.

690

Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, p. 373409; A. S. Lindemann, The Red Years: European Socialism Versus Bolshevism, 19191921 (Berkeley, CA, 1974); G. A. Ritter (ed.), Die II Internationale 1918/1919. Protokolle, Memoranden, Berichte und Korrespondenzen (Berlin, 1980), vols 1 and 2.

691

PWW, vol. 53, p. 574.

692

D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (London, 1997), p. 248249; C. F. Brand, The Attitude of British Labor Toward President Wilson during the Peace Conference, The American Historical Review 42, no. 2 (January 1937), p. 244255.

693

Ritter, Die II Internationale, vol. 1, p. 208285.

694

Ibid., vol. 1, p. 230243.

695

. : Two Peacemakers in Paris: The Hoover-Wilson Post-Armistice Letters, 19181920 (College Station, TX, 1978), p. 128129 and 135141.

696

Ritter, Die II Internationale, p. 288377.

697

: S. Miller, Burgfrieden und Klassenkampf: Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie im Ersten Weltkrieg (Düsseldorf, 1974), p. 320.

698

D. Tanner, Political Change and the Labour Party, 19001918 (Cambridge, 1990), p. 393397; R. McKibbin, Parties and People, England 19141951 (Oxford, 2010), p. 30.

699

J. Turner, British Politics and the Great War: Coalition and Conflict, 19151918 (New Haven, CT, 1992) p. 319.

700

Marquand, MacDonald, p. 236.

701

M. Pugh, Electoral Reform in War and Peace, 19061918 (London, 1978), p. 176177.

702

M. Cowling, The Impact of Labour, 19201924 (Cambridge, 1971).

703

Tanner, Political Change, p. 403404.

704

L. Haimson and G. Sapelli, Strikes, Social Conflict, and the First World War (Milan, 1992); C. Wrigley, Challenges of Labour: Central and Western Europe 19171920 (London, 1993); B. J. Silver, Forces of Labor: Workers Movements and Globalization since 1870 (Cambridge, 2003).

705

C. Wrigley, Lloyd George and the Challenge of Labour: The Post-War Coalition, 19181922 (Hemel Hempstead, 1990).

706

B. Millman, Managing Domestic Dissent in First World War Britain (London, 2000), p. 263.

707

Wrigley, Lloyd George and the Challenge of Labour, p. 223.

708

Turner, British Politics, p. 314.

709

Wrigley, Lloyd George and the Challenge of Labour, p. 82.

710

Ibid., p. 204.

711

E. Morgan, Studies in British Financial Policy, 19141925 (London, 1952).

712

L. Ross, Debts, Revenues and Expenditures and Note Circulation of the Principal Belligerents, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 34, no. 1 (November 1919), p. 168.

713

R. E. Bunselmeyer, The Cost of the War, 19141919: British Economic War Aims and the Origins of Reparations (Hamden, CT, 1975), p. 106148.

714

E. Johnson and D. Moggridge (eds), The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (Cambridge, 2012), vol. 16, p. 418419.

715

B. Kent, The Spoils of War (Oxford, 1991); D. Newton, British Policy and the Weimar Republic 19181919 (Oxford, 1997).

716

M. Daunton, Just Taxes: The Politics of Taxation in Britain, 19141979 (Cambridge, 2002), p. 6972.

717

D. P. Silverman, Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (Cambridge, MA, 1982), p. 71.

718

Soutou, LOr et Le Sang, p. 806828.

719

L. Blum, LOeuvre de Léon Blum, 3 vols (Paris, 1972), vol. 1, p. 278.

720

E. Clémentel, La France et la politique économique interalliée (Paris, 1931), p. 343.

721

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 196694) vol 53, p. 550.

722

T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), p. 224.

723

: R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement (New York, 1922), : A. Mayer, Wilson vs. Lenin: Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 19171918 (New York, 1964).

724

: C. Schmitt, Positionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar-Genf-Versailles, 19231939 (Hamburg, 1940); T. Veblen, Peace, in Essays in Our Changing Order (New York, 1934), p. 415422, , , .

725

PWW, vol. 55, p. 175177.

726

PWW, vol. 53, p. 336337.

727

Journal officiel de la Républiquefrançaise (Paris, 1918), 29 December 1918, vol. 50, p. 3, 732ff.

728

PWW, vol. 53, p. 571.

729

, , W. R. Keylor, Frances Futile Quest for American Military Protection, 19191922, in M. Petricioli and M. Guderzo (eds), Une Occasion manquée? 1922: La reconstruction de LEurope (Frankfurt,1995), p. 62.

730

G. Clemenceau, Grandeur and Misery of Victory (New York, 1930), p. 202. : G. Dallas, At the Heart of a Tiger: Clemenceau and His World 18411929 (London, 1993), p. 481. . 1910 : G. Clemenceau, Sur la Démocratie: neuf conférences (Paris, 1930), p. 117134.

731

D. Demko, Léon Bourgeois: Philosophe de la solidarité (Paris, 2001); C. Bouchard, Le Citoyen et lordre mondial 19141919 (Paris, 2008); S. Audier, Léon Bourgeois: Fonder la solidarité (Paris, 2007).

732

P. J. Yearwood, Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy (Oxford, 2009), p. 139.

733

F. Meinecke, Machiavellism: The Doctrine of Raison dEtat and its Place in Modern History (New Haven, CT, 1962), p. 423424, : Schmitt, Positionen.

734

F. R. Dickinson, War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War 19141919 (Cambridge MA, 1999), p. 212218.

735

L. Connors, The Emperors Adviser: Saionji Kinmochi and Pre-War Japanese Politics (Oxford, 1987), p. 6066.

736

S. Naoko, Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 (London, 2003), p. 61.

737

PWW, vol. 53, p. 622; M. Macmillan, Peacemakers: The Paris Conference of 1919 and its Attempt to End War (London, 2001), p. 154155.

738

D. H. Miller, The Drafting of the Covenant [hereafter DC] (New York, 1928), vol. 2, p. 64105.

739

DC, vol. 1, p. 138.

740

Ibid., p. 146147. , .: H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (London, 1933), p. 226.

741

DC, vol. 1, p. 162.

742

Ibid., p. 152.

743

Ibid., p. 160.

744

Ibid., p. 160162.

745

Knock, To End All Wars, p. 218.

746

DC, vol. 1, p. 160.

747

Ibid., p. 166.

748

DC, vol. 1, p. 165.

749

Ibid., p. 165.

750

Ibid., p. 167.

751

DC, vol. 2, p. 303.

752

DC, vol. 1, p. 216217.

753

DC, vol 2, p. 294.

754

Ibid., p. 293.

755

Ibid., p. 264.

756

DC, vol. 2, p. 297.

757

DC, vol. 1, p. 262.

758

PWW, vol. 57, p. 126127.

759

S. Bonsal, Unfinished Business (New York, 1944), p. 202217.

760

A. Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge, 2004); M. Mazower, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (Princeton, NJ, 2009).

761

P. J. Yearwood, Guarantee, and G. W. Egerton, Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations (Chapel Hill, NC, 1978).

762

PWW, vol. 53, p. 427.

763

Ibid., p. 320321.

764

J. W. Jones, The Naval Battle of Paris, Naval War College Review 62 (2009), p. 7789.

765

, .: PWW, vol. 57, p. 180.

766

Ibid., p. 9192.

767

Egerton, Great Britain and the League, p. 158.

768

R. Dingman, Power in the Pacific: The Origins of Naval Arms Limitation, 19141922 (Chicago, IL, 1976), p. 8687; PWW, vol. 57, p. 142144, 216217.

769

J. Bainville, Les Conséquences politiques de la paix (Paris, 1920), p. 25.

770

: M. Macmillan, Peacemakers: The Paris Conference of 1919 and its Attempt to End War (London, 2001).

771

M. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics: France and European Economic Diplomacy, 19161923 (New York, 1980), p. 4852.

772

, : H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (London, 1933); A. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson and the Guilt of Germany (Leicester, 1984), : A. Lentin, Lloyd George and the Lost Peace: From Versailles to Hitler, 19191940 (Basingstoke, 2001).

773

Bainville, Conséquences, p. 2529.

774

G. Clemenceau, Grandeur and Misery of Victory (New York, 1930), p. 144207.

775

A. Thiers, Discours parlementaire: 3eme partie 18651866 (Paris, 1881), p. 645646.

776

Clemenceau, Grandeur, p. 185.

777

C. Clark, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 16001947 (London, 2006); P. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics, 17631848 (Oxford, 1994); P. Schroeder, Austria, Great Britain, and the Crimean War: The Destruction of the European Concert (Ithaca, NY, 1972).

778

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ 1966-94) vo1. 54, p. 466.

779

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 1, Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969, and Basingstoke, 1989), p. 289290.

780

W. McDougall, Frances Rhineland Diplomacy, 19141924: The Last Bid for a Balance of Power in Europe (Princeton, NJ, 1978).

781

: B. Wendt, Lloyd Georges Fontainebleau Memorandum, in U. Lehmkuhl, C. Wurm and H. Zimmermann (eds), Deutschland, Grossbritannien, Amerika (Wiesbaden, 2003), p. 2745. . : J. Cairns, A Nation of Shopkeepers in Search of a Suitable France: 19191940, The American Historical Review 79 (June 1974), p. 714.

782

PWW, vol. 57, p. 5061.

783

A. Tardieu, The Truth About the Treaty (London, 1921).

784

N. Angell, The Great Illusion (New York, 1910).

785

J. Horne and A. Kramer, German Atrocities and Franco-German Opinion, 1914: The Evidence of German Soldiers Diaries, TheJournal of Modern History 66 (1994), p. 133;I. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (Ithaca, NY, 2005).

786

I. Renz, G. Krumeich and G. Hirschfeld, Scorched Earth: The Germans on the Somme 19141918 (Barnsley, 2009).

787

J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919), p. 126128; . . . // . . , . . ., 2007, . 498.

788

F. W. OBrien, Two Peacemakers in Paris: The Hoover-Wilson Post-Armistice Letters, 19181920 (College Station, TX, 1978), p. 65.

789

PWW, vol. 57, p. 120130, 316.

790

D. Stevenson, France at the Paris Peace Conference, in R. Boyce (ed.), French Foreign and Defence Policy, 19181940 (London, 1998), p. 1029.

791

G. Dallas, At the Heart of a Tiger: Clemenceau and His World, 18411929 (London, 1993), p. 566.

792

. : PWW, vol. 58, p. 211214.

793

PWW, vol. 57, p. 279.

794

W. Wilson, The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (New York, 1927), p. 523.

795

Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 32.

796

P. Mantoux, The Deliberations of the Council of Four, trans. and ed. A. S. Link (Princeton, NJ, 1992), vol. 1, p. 144145.

797

S. Wambaugh, Plebiscites Since the World War (Washington, DC, 1933), vol. 1, p. 3362, 206270.

798

P. Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies, 19191925 (Minneapolis, MN, 1962).

799

Mantoux, Deliberations, vol. 2, p. 452455.

800

E. Mantoux, The Carthaginian Peace Or the Economic Consequences of Mr. Keynes (London, 1946).

801

J. Hagen, Mapping the Polish Corridor: Ethnicity, Economics and Geopolitics, Imago Mundi: The International Journalfor the History of Cartography 62 (2009), p. 6382.

802

R. Blanke, Orphans of Versailles: The Germans in Western Poland, 19181939 (Lexington 1993).

803

A. Demshuk, The Lost German East: Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory, 19451970 (Cambridge, 2012).

804

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers [FRUS: Lansing Papers] (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 26.

805

Clemenceau, Grandeur, p. 162163.

806

FRUS: Lansing Papers, vol. 2, p. 27.

807

PWW, vol.57, p. 151.

808

R. Boyce, The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization (Basingstoke, 2009), p. 5255.

809

A. Orzoff, Battle for the Castle: The Myth of Czechoslovakia in Europe, 19141948 (Oxford,2009).

810

D. Miller, Forging Political Compromise: Antonin Svehla and the Czechoslovak Republican Party, 19181933 (Pittsburgh, NJ, 1999); W. Blackwood, Socialism, Czechoslovakism, and the Munich Complex, 19181948, The International History Review 21 (1999), p. 875899.

811

A. Polonsky, Politics in Independent Poland, 19211939: The Crisis of Constitutional Government (Oxford, 1972).

812

T. Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 15691999 (New Haven, CT, 2003).

813

D. Durand, Currency Inflation in Eastern Europe with Special Reference to Poland, The American Economic Review 13 (1923), p. 593608.

814

N. Davies, Lloyd George and Poland, 19191920, Journal of Contemporary History 6 (1971), p. 132154.

815

D. L. George, Memoir of the Peace Conference (New Haven, CT, 1939), vol. 1, p. 266273.

816

Boyce, Great Interwar Crisis, p. 51.

817

M. Mazower, Minorities and the League of Nations in Interwar Europe, Daedalus 126 (1997), p. 4763.

818

Wambaugh, Plebiscites, vol. 1, p. 249.

819

G. Manceron (ed.), 1885: Le tournant colonial de la République: Jules Ferry contre Georges Clemenceau, et autres affrontements parlementaires sur la conquête coloniale (Paris, 2006).

820

, , F. Meinecke, Machiavellism: The Doctrine of Raison dEtat and its Place in Modern History (New Haven, CT, 1962), p. 432.

821

C. Schmitt, Positionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar-Genf-Versailles, 19231939 (Hamburg, 1940).

822

H. Winkler, Arbeiter und Arbeiterbewegung in der Weimarer Republik, 19181924 (Berlin 1987) p. 185.

823

C. Schmitt, Positionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar-Genf-Versailles, 19231939(Hamburg, 1940).

824

G. D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation 19141924 (Oxford, 1993) p. 434.

825

M. Horn, Britain, France, and the Financing of the First World War (Montreal, 2002).

826

D. Artaud, La Question des dettes interalliées et la reconstruction de lEurope, 19171929(Lille, 1978).

827

G.-H. Soutou, LOr et le Sang: Les Buts de guerre économique de la Preminre Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1989), p. 777805.

828

: G. Rousseau, Étienne Clémentel (Clermont-Ferrand, 1998), p. 18; P. Rabinow, French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment (Chicago, IL, 1995), p. 325, .

829

E. Clémentel, La France et la politique économique interalliée (Paris, 1931).

830

M. Trachtenberg, Reparation in World Politics: France and European Economic Diplomacy, 19161923 (New York, 1980), p. 5.

831

W. McDougall, Political Economy versus National Sovereignty: French Structures for German Economic Integration after Versailles, The Journal of Modern History, vol. 51 (1979) p. 423.

832

E. Roussel, Jean Monnet (Paris, 1996), p. 3344.

833

F. Duchnne,Jean Monnet (New York, 1994), p. 40; J. Monnet, Memoirs (London, 1978), p. 75.

834

R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement (New York, 1922), vol. 3, p. 322.

835

W. R. Keylor, Versailles and International Diplomacy, in M. Boemeke, R. Chickering and E. Glaser (eds), The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment After 75 Years (Washington, DC, 1998), p. 498.

836

F. W. OBrien, Two Peacemakers in Paris: The Hoover-Wilson Post-Armistice Letters, 19181920 (College Station, TX, 1978), p. 4.

837

Ibid., p. 156161.

838

Trachtenberg, Reparations, p. 34.

839

S. Lauzanne, Can France Carry Her Fiscal Burden?, The North American Review 214 (1921), p. 603609.

840

A. Lentin, The Last Political Law Lord: Lord Sumner (Cambridge, 2008), 81-104; R. E. Bunselmeyer, The Cost of the War, 19141919: British Economic War Aims and the Origins of Reparation (Hamden, CT, 1975).

841

P. M. Burnett, Reparation at the Paris Peace Conference (New York, 1940), vol. 1, Document 211, p. 777.

842

Ibid., Document 210, p. 776.

843

Ibid., Document 246, p. 857858.

844

Ibid., Document 234, p. 824, and Document 262, p. 898903.

845

Two Peacemakers, p. 118119.

846

J. M. Keynes, Revision of the Treaty (London, 1922), p. 34.

847

: E. Mantoux, The Carthaginian Peace; or, The Economic Consequences of Mr. Keynes (New York, 1952).

848

V. Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary (Oxford, 1963), p. 102; L. Trotsky, The First Five Years of the Communist International (Moscow, 1924), vol. 1, p. 351.

849

N. Ferguson, Paper & Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, 18971927 (Cambridge, 1995).

850

E. Johnson and D. Moggridge (eds), The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (Cambridge, 2012), vol. 16, p. 156184.

851

R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Hopes Betrayed, 18831920 (London,1983), vol. 1, 317.

852

J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919), p. 5, 253; . . . // . . , . . ., 2007, . 464, 523.

853

Ibid., p. 14650; , . 490492.

854

Ibid., . 269; , . 524.

855

Artaud, La Question des dettes interalliées, vol. 1, p. 116.

856

D. P. Silverman, Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (Cambridge, MA, 1982), p. 32.

857

A. Tardieu, The Truth About the Treaty (Indianapolis, IN, 1921), p. 344.

858

Silverman, Reconstructing Europe, p. 39.

859

Keynes, Collected Writings, vol. 16, p. 422.

860

Ibid., p. 426427.

861

Keynes, Economic Consequences, p. 283288; . . . , . 516518.

862

Keynes, Collected Writings, vol. 16, p. 428436.

863

Keynes, Collected Writings, vol. 16, p. 434.

864

Silverman, Reconstructing Europe, p. 36.

865

A. Orde, British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Cambridge, 1990) p. 57.

866

Hoover to Wilson, 11 April 1919, Two Peacemakers, p. 112115.

867

Baker, Woodrow Wilson, vol. 3, p. 344346.

868

Ibid., p. 373375.

869

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923 (Oxford, 1987), p. 247; F. Costigliola, Awkward Dominion: American Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations with Europe, 19191933 (Ithaca, NY, 1987), p. 35.

870

Two Peacemakers, p. 196203.

871

B. D. Rhodes, Reassessing Uncle Shylock: The United States and the French War Debt, 19171929, The Journal of American History 55 (March 1969), p. 791.

872

Silverman, Reconstructing Europe, p. 171, 205211.

873

A. Hitler, Mein Kampf (Munich, 19251927).

874

H. J. Burgwyn, The Legend of the Mutilated Victory: Italy, the Great War, and the Paris Peace Conference, 19151919 (Westport, CT, 1993), p. 300.

875

Falasca-Zamponi, Fascist Spectacle (Berkeley, CA, 1997), 32, p. 163164.

876

.: A. Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy: Containment and Counter-Revolution at Versailles, 19181919 (New York, 1967), p. 206207; P. OBrien, Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist (Oxford, 2005), p. 151. .: Mein Kampf, p. 712713.

877

Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, p. 219220.

878

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1940), vol. 2, p. 8990.

879

H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (London, 1933), p. 161.

880

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94/ vol 57, p. 614.

881

Burgwyn, The Legend, p. 256258.

882

PWW, vol. 57, p. 432433.

883

PWW, vol. 58, p. 19.

884

PWW, vol. 57, p. 527.

885

PWW, vol. 58, p. 7.

886

D. Rossini, Woodrow Wilson and the American Myth in Italy (Cambridge, MA, 2008), p. 117123.

887

Ibid., p. 131.

888

PWW, vol. 58, p. 142.

889

Ibid., p. 47.

890

PWW, vol. 57, p. 70.

891

PWW, vol. 58, p. 4.

892

Ibid., p. 59.

893

Ibid., p. 9193.

894

Burgwyn, Legend, p. 281.

895

Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 319.

896

PWW, vol. 58, p. 143.

897

D. J. Forsyth, The Crisis of Liberal Italy (Cambridge, 1993), p. 205.

898

L. Hautecoeur, LItalie sous le Ministure Orlando, 19171919 (Paris, 1919), p. 209210.

899

M. Knox, To the Threshold of Power, 1922/33: Origins and Dynamics of the Fascist and National Socialist Dictatorships (Cambridge, 2007), vol. 1, p. 307310.

900

G. Salvemini, The Origins of Fascism in Italy (New York, 1973), p. 230.

901

Akten der Reichskanzlei Das Kabinett Scheidemann (AdR DKS), Nr 66, p. 303.

902

Ibid., p. 303306.

903

Ibid., 8 May 1919, p. 306, and AdR DKS Nr 70, 12 May 1919, p. 314316.

904

P. Scheidemann, The Making of a New Germany (New York, 1928), p. 2425.

905

AdR DKS Nr 15, 63, and Nr 20, p. 8591. See also K. Kautsky, Wie der Weltkrieg Entstand (Berlin, 1919).

906

AdR DKS Nr 79, 19 May 1919, p. 350351.

907

AdR DKS Nr 67, 9 May 1919, p. 308.

908

AdR DKS Nr 80, 20 May 1919, p. 354.

909

Ibid., 20 May 1919, p. 358359, Nr 86, 26 May 1919, p. 375, Nr 87, 26 May 1919, p. 379380.

910

AdR DKS Nr 84, 23 May 1919, p. 368369.

911

P. Krüger, Die Reparationen und das Scheitern einer deutschen Verständigungspolitikauf der Pariser Friedenskonferenz im Jahre 1919, Historische Zeitschrift 221 (1975), p. 336338.

912

L. Haupts, Deutsche Friedenspolitik, 1918-19: eine Alternative zur Machtpolitik des Ersten Weltkrieges (Düsseldorf, 1976), p. 329372.

913

, 7,5 ., . J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919), p. 223, 262; . . . // . . , . . ., 2007, . 522, 545.

914

The Deliberations of the Council of Four (March 24June 28,1919): Notes of the Official Interpreter, Paul Mantoux, trans. and ed. by Arthur S. Link and Manfred F. Boemeke (Princeton, NJ, 1991), vol. 2, p. 462466, 39 , 44 , .

915

H. Mühleisen, Annehmen oder Ablehnen? Das Kabinett Scheidemann, die Oberste Heeresleitung und der Vertrag von Versailles im Juni 1919. Fünf Dokumente aus dem Nachlaß des Hauptmanns Günther von Posek, Vierteljahrsheftefür Zeitgeschichte 35 (1987) p. 419481.

916

AdR DKS Nr 107, 11 June 1919, p. 445.

917

AdR DKS Nr 114, 20 June 1919.

918

AdR DKS Nr 111, 14 June 1919.

919

AdR DKS Nr 113, p. 469475.

920

AdR DKS Nr 99, 3 June 1919.

921

AdR DKS Nr 113, 17 June 1919, p. 475.

922

AdR DKS Nr 105, 10 June 1919, p. 105.

923

AdR DKS Nr 114, 20 June 1919, p. 485486.

924

AdR DKS Nr 118, 18 June 1919, p. 506.

925

AdR DKS Nr 100, 4 June 1919, p. 419420.

926

: A. Luckau, Unconditional Acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles by the German Government, June 2228, 1919, The Journal of Modern History 17 6945) P. 215220.

927

G. Noske, Von Kiel bis Kapp: zur Geschichte der deutschen Revolution (Berlin, 1920), p. 147156, and W. Wette, Gustav Noske: eine politische Biographie (Düsseldorf, 1987), p. 461493.

928

AdR DKS Nr 118, p. 501502.

929

AdR DKS Nr 114, 20 June 1919, p. 491.

930

AdR DKS Nr 3, 23 June 1919, p. 10.

931

Two Peacemakers in Paris: The Hoover-Wilson Post-Armistice Letters, 19181920, ed. with commentaries by Francis William OBrien (College Station, TX, 1978), p. 168173; Nicolson, Peacemaking, p. 362364.

932

Wette, Noske, p. 506517.

933

. : AdR KBauer Nr. 183, 653-6, Nr 186-92, 667-83, Nr 218,P. 771791.

934

AdR KBauer Nr 204, p. 710725.

935

AdR KBauer, Nr 215, 760762. . : G. Eliasberg, Der Ruhrkrieg von 1920 (Bonn, 1974).

936

H. A. Turner, Stresemann and the Politics of the Weimar Republic (Princeton, NJ, 1963), p. 4391.

937

M. Berg, Gustav Stresemann und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika: Weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und Revisionspolitik, 19071929 (Baden-Baden, 1990), p. 102.

938

. : E. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism(Oxford, 2007), p. 99117, 177196.

939

Connors, The Emperors Adviser: Saionji Kinmochi and Pre-War Japanese Politics (Oxford, 1987) p. 6071.

940

Y. S. Sun, The International Development of China (New York, 1922).

941

Y. Zhang, China in the International System, 19181920 (Basingstoke, 1991), p. 15.

942

N. S. Bose, American Attitudes and Policy to the Nationalist Movement in China, 19111921 (Bombay p. 157159.

943

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923(Oxford, 1987), p. 230.

944

Zhang, China, p. 55.

945

S. G. Craft, V. K.: Wellington Koo and the Emergence of Modern China (Lexington, KY, 2004) p. 4950.

946

S. Naoko, Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 (London, 2003),p. 4950.

947

N. Kawamura, Turbulence in the Pacific: Japanese-U. S. Relations during World War I (Westport, CT, 2000), p. 140.

948

Y. Ozaki, The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio (Princeton, NJ, 2001), p. 330336.

949

. : A. Gordon, Labor and Imperial Democracy in Prewar Japan (Berkeley, CA, 1991).

950

Naoko, Japan, p. 19.

951

M. Lake and H. Reynolds, Drawing the Global Color Line: White Mens Countries and the International Challenge of Racial Equality (Cambridge, 2008).

952

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [hereafter PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ 19661994) vol 57, p. 239240.

953

Ibid., p. 247, 264.

954

Naoko, Japan, p. 2931.

955

PWW, vol. 57, p. 285.

956

, .: PWW, vol. 58, p. 179.

957

Kawamura, Turbulence, p. 147.

958

PWW, vol. 57, p. 554.

959

D. H. Miller, The Drafting of the Covenant (New York, 1928), vol. 1, p. 103.

960

PWW, vol. 57, p. 584 and 618.

961

PWW, vol. 58, p. 165.

962

Connors, Emperors Adviser, p. 74.

963

PWW, vol. 58, p. 112113.

964

Craft, Wellington Koo, 56; PWW, vol. 57, p. 615626.

965

PWW, vol. 58, p. 130, 183184.

966

Zhang, China, p. 8889.

967

R. Mitter, A Bitter Revolution: Chinas Struggle with the Modern World (Oxford, 2004).

968

J. Chesneaux, F. Le Barbier and M.-C. Bergère, China from the 1911 Revolution to Liberation, trans. P. Auster and L. Davis (New York, 1977), p. 6569.

969

D. Kuhn, Die Republik China von 1912 bis 1937: Entwurf für eine politische Ereignisgeschichte (Heidelberg, 2004), p. 142.

970

Zhang, China, p. 79.

971

Chesneaux et al., China, p. 6768.

972

Zhang, China, p. 7599.

973

Y. T Matsusaka, The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 19041932 (Cambridge, MA, 2001),p. 241.

974

L. A. Humphreys, The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920s (Stanford, CA, 1995), p. 175.

975

Ibid., 41.

976

Matsusaka, The Making, p. 241.

977

Zhang, China, p. 139141.

978

S. R. Schram and N. J. Hodes (eds), Maos Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings 19121949 (New York, 1992), vol. 1, p. 321322, 337, 357367, 390, and vol. 2, p. 159160, 186188.

979

W. C. Kirby, Germany and Republican China (Stanford, CA, 1984), p. 35.

980

B. A. Ellman, Diplomacy and Deception: The Secret History of Sino-Soviet Diplomatic Relations, 19171927 (London, 1997), p. 25.

981

Zhang, China, p. 157.

982

A. S. Link (ed.) et al., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson [PWW], 69 vols (Princeton, NJ, 1966-94), vol. 61, p. 426436.

983

Ibid., p. 225.

984

.: R. S. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement (New York, 1922), L. E. Ambrosius, Woodrow Wilson and the American Diplomatic Tradition: The Treaty Fight in Perspective (Cambridge, 1987).

985

The New York Times, Bullitt Asserts Lansing Expected the Treaty to Fail, 13 September 1919.

986

W. C. Bullitt and S. Freud, Thomas Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study (Boston, MA, 1967).

987

The New York Times, Lodge Attacks Covenant and Outlines 5 Reservations; Assailed by Williams, 13 August 1919.

988

Ambrosius, Woodrow Wilson, p. xxx.

989

W. C. Widenor, Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy (Berkeley, CA, 1980).

990

The New York Times, Qualify Treaty on Ratification, Says Elihu Root, 22 June 1919.

991

PWW, vol. 42, p. 340344.

992

T. J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New Order (Princeton, NJ, 1992), p. 267.

993

M. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: Americas Pursuit of European Stability and French Security, 19191933 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979), p. 15.

994

W. Lippmann, Woodrow Wilsons Approach to Politics, New Republic, 5 December 1955; T. Bimes and S. Skowronek, Woodrow Wilsons Critique of Popular Leadership: Reassessing the Modern-Traditional Divide in Presidential History, Polity 29 (1996), p. 2763.

995

K. Wimer, Woodrow Wilsons Plan for a Vote of Confidence, Pennsylvania History 28 (1961), p. 216, and R. L. Merritt, Woodrow Wilson and the Great and Solemn Referendum, 1920, The Review of Politics 27 (1965), p. 78104.

996

. , 1916 , : PWW, vol. 40.

997

A. Hagedorn, Savage Peace: Hope and Fear in America, 1919 (New York, 2007), p. 297322.

998

A. Hart (ed.), Selected Addresses and Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (New York, 1918) p. 270.

999

W. Wilson, A History of the American People (New York, 1902), vol. 5, p. 5964.

1000

Hart (ed.), Selected Addresses, p. 271.

1001

The New York Times, 26 November 1919.

1002

T. Kornweibel, Seeing Red: Federal Campaigns against Black Militancy, 19191925 (Bloomington, IN, 1998).

1003

The New York Times, President Cheered from Pier to Hotel, 25 February 1919.

1004

Hagedorn, Savage Peace, p. 218225.

1005

PWW, vol. 62, p. 58.

1006

The New York Times, Raid from Coast to Coast, 3 January 1920; R. K. Murray, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 19191920 (Minneapolis, MN, 1955).

1007

J. A. McCartin, Labors Great War: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations (Chapel Hill, NC, 1997).

1008

J. Cooper, The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, MA, 1983), p. 264.

1009

PWW, vol. 64, p. 84.

1010

Commission of Enquiry, the Interchurch World Movement, Report on the Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1920); D. Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965).

1011

PWW, vol. 63, p. 600.

1012

D. Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labor: Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 18651925 (New Haven, CT, 1988).

1013

McCartin, Labors Great War, p. 199220.

1014

The New York Times, Palmer Pledges War on Radicals, 1 January 1920.

1015

R. K. Murray, The Politics of Normalcy: Governmental Theory and Practice in the Harding-Coolidge Era (New York, 1973), p. 3; idem., The Harding Era: Warren G. Harding and His Administration (Minneapolis, MN, 1969), p. 82.

1016

B. M. Manly, Have Profits Kept Pace with the Cost of Living?, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (1920), p. 157162, and E. B. Woods, Have Wages Kept Pace with the Cost of Living?, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 89 (1920), p. 135147.

1017

The New York Times, Palmer Has Plan to Cut Living Cost, 17 December 1919, p. 19.

1018

The New York Times, Urge President to Return, 24 May 1919, p. 4.

1019

Interchurch World Movement, Report, p. 94106.

1020

H. L. Lutz, The Administration of the Federal Interest-Bearing Debt Since the Armistice, The Journal of Political Economy 34 (1926), p. 413457.

1021

M. Friedman and A. J. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 18671960 (Princeton, NJ, 1963), p. 222226.

1022

A. Meltzer, A History of the Federal Reserve (Chicago, IL, 2003), vol. 1, p. 9495.

1023

Friedman and Schwartz, Monetary History, p. 227.

1024

Meltzer, History, p. 101102.

1025

Friedman and Schwartz, Monetary History, p. 230.

1026

45. Meltzer, History, p. 127.

1027

The New York Times, Williams Strikes at High Interest, 11 August 1920, 24, and Bank Convention Condemns Williams, 23 October 1920, p. 20.

1028

J. Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 18601925 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1988); N. K. MacLean, Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan (Oxford, 1995).

1029

J. C. Prude, William Gibbs McAdoo and the Democratic National Convention of 1924, The Journal of Southern History 38 (1972), p. 621628.

1030

F. E. Schortemeier, Rededicating America: Life and Recent Speeches of Warren G. Harding (Indianapolis, IN, 1920), p. 223.

1031

Higham, Strangers, p. 309.

1032

R. Boyce, The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization (Basingstoke,2003), p. 88.

1033

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 44.

1034

Boyce, Great Interwar Crisis, p. 178.

1035

S. M. Deutsch, Counter-Revolution in Argentina, 19001932: The Argentine Patriotic League (Lincoln, NB, 1986).

1036

R. Gerwarth and J. Horne (eds), War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War (Oxford, 2012).

1037

C. S. Maier, Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I (Princeton, NJ, 1975), p. 136.

1038

E. L. Dulles, The French Franc, 19141928: The Facts and their Interpretations (New York, 1929), p. 120121.

1039

M. Metzler, Lever of Empire: The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan (Berkeley, CA, 2005), p. 118133.

1040

L. Humphreys, The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920s (Stanford, CA, 1995), p. 44; P. Duus (ed.), The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6, The Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1988), p. 277.

1041

R. Haig, The Public Finances of Post-War France (New York, 1929), p. 7088.

1042

B. Martin, France and the Aprs Guerre, 19181924: Illusions and Disillusionment (Baton Rouge, FL, 1999), p. 3536.

1043

F. R. Dickinson, War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War, 19141919 (Cambridge, MA, 1999), p. 230.

1044

P. Duus, Party Rivalry and Political Change in Taisho Japan (Cambridge, MA, 1968), p. 141.

1045

M. Lewis, Rioters and Citizens: Mass Protest in Imperial Japan (Berkeley, CA, 1990), p. 82.

1046

C. Wrigley, Lloyd George and the Challenge of Labour: The Post- War Coalition, 19181922 (Hemel Hempstead, 1990), p. 81.

1047

M. Daunton, Just Taxes: The Politics of Taxation in Britain, 19141979 (Cambridge, 2002),p. 7677.

1048

Metzler, Lever of Empire, p. 133.

1049

G. Balachandran, John Bullions Empire: Britains Gold Problem and India Between the Wars (London, 1996), p. 96.

1050

A. C. Pigou, Aspects of British Economic History, 19181925 (London, 1945), p. 149.

1051

Balachandran, John Bullions Empire, 93, p. 109112.

1052

K. Jeffery (ed.), The Military Correspondence of Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson, 19181922 (London 1854 p. 253.

1053

A. Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 1919-39 (Basingstoke, 1986), p. 103.

1054

R. Middleton, Government versus the Market: The Growth of the Public Sector, Economic Management, and British Economic Performance, 18901979 (Cheltenham, . m 311335.

1055

M. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: Americas Pursuit of European Stability and French Security 19191933 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979) p. 14.

1056

M. Milbank Farrar, Principled Pragmatist: The Political Career of Alexandre Millerand (New York, 1991).

1057

D. Artaud, La question des dettes interalliées, in M. Petricioli and M. Guderzo (eds), Une occasion manquée? 1922: La reconstruction de lEurope (New York, 1995), p. 89.

1058

Dulles, French Franc, p. 130.

1059

F. H. Adler, Italian Industrialists from Liberalism to Fascism (Cambridge, 1995), p. 165.

1060

Metzler, Lever of Empire, 134; Duus, Cambridge History, p. 461; Lewis, Rioters, p. 246.

1061

C.-L. Holtfrerich, The German Inflation, 19141923 (Berlin, 1986).

1062

M. Flandreau (ed.), Money Doctors: The Experience of International Financial Advising, 18502000 (London, 2003).

1063

Duus, Party Rivalry, p. 111.

1064

Metzler, Lever of Empire, p. 129, 160.

1065

Humphreys, Heavenly Sword, p. 61.

1066

I. Gow, Military Intervention in Prewar Japanese Politics: Admiral Kato-Kanji and the Washington System (London, 2004), p. 85.

1067

F. R. Dickinson, World War I and the Triumph of a New Japan, 19191930 (Cambridge,2013) p. 115116.

1068

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 2, Dream of Commonwealth, 19211942 (Basingstoke, 1989), p. 27.

1069

K. Jeffery, The British Army and the Crisis of Empire (Manchester, 1984), p. 1323.

1070

K. Jeffery, The Military Correspondence of Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson, 19181922 (London, 1985), p. 197201.

1071

K. Jeffery, An English Barrack in the Oriental Seas? India in the Aftermath of the First World War, Modern Asian Studies 15 (1981), p. 369386.

1072

Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 19191939, p. 20.

1073

S. Roskill, Naval Policy Between the Wars (New York, 1968), vol. 1, p. 215216.

1074

J. Ferris, The Evolution of British Strategic Policy, 1919-26 (Basingstoke, 1989), p. 5463.

1075

Maier, Recasting, p. 195.

1076

D. P. Silverman, Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (Cambridge, MA, 1982), p. 215220.

1077

Ibid., p. 149.

1078

R. Self, Britain, America and the War Debt Controversy: The Economic Diplomacy of an Unspecial Relationship, 19171941 (London, 2006), p. 29.

1079

National archive, CAB24/116 CP 2214.

1080

G. Unger, Aristide Briand: Le ferme conciliateur (Paris, 2005).

1081

Maier, Recasting, p. 241249.

1082

G. D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 19141924 (Oxford, 1993), p. 338341.

1083

: N. Ferguson, Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, 18971927 (Cambridge, 1995).

1084

S. B. Webb, Hyperinflation and Stabilization in Weimar Germany (Oxford, 1988).

1085

N. Ferguson, Constraints and Room for Manoeuvre in the German Inflation notes to pp. 361-70 of the Early 1920s, The Economic History Review New Series 49 (1996), p. 635666.

1086

Silverman, Reconstructing Europe, p. 224225.

1087

M. J. Pusey, Charles Evans Hughes (New York, 1951), vol. 1, p. 350.

1088

N. A. Palmer, The Veterans Bonus and the Evolving Presidency of Warren G. Harding, Presidential Studies Quarterly 38 (2008), 3960.

1089

Artaud, La question, in Petricioli and Guderzo (eds), Occasion manquée, p. 87.

1090

S. A. Schuker, American Policy Towards Debts and Reconstruction, : C. Fink (ed.), Genoa, Rapallo and European Reconstruction in 1922 (Cambridge, 1991), p. 98.

1091

M. Leffler, The Origins of Republican War Debt Policy, 19211923: A Case Study in the Applicability of the Open Door Interpretation, The Journal of American History 59 (1972) p. 593.

1092

A. Orde, British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Cambridge, 1990) p. 173174.

1093

J. Gallagher, Nationalisms and the Crisis of Empire, 19191922, Modern Asian Studies 15(1981) 355368.

1094

W. F. Elkins, Black Power in the British West Indies: The Trinidad Longshoremens Strike of 1919, Science and Society 33 (1969), p. 7175.

1095

I. Abdullah, Rethinking the Freetown Crowd: The Moral Economy of the 1919 Strikes and Riot in Sierra Leone, Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines 28, no. 2 (1994), p. 197218.

1096

T. Yoshikuni, Strike Action and Self-Help Associations: Zimbabwean Worker Protest and Culture after World War I, Journal of Southern African Studies 15, no. 3 (April 1989), p. 440468.

1097

D. Killingray, Repercussions of World War I in the Gold Coast, The Journal of African History 19 (1978), p. 3959; A. Olukoju, Maritime Trade in Lagos in the Aftermath of the First World War, African Economic History 20 (1992), p. 119135; A. Olukoju, Anatomy of Business-Government Relations: Fiscal Policy and Mercantile Pressure Group Activity in Nigeria, 19161933, African Studies Review 38 (1995), p. 2350.

1098

R. Ally, Gold and Empire: The Bank of England and South Africas Gold Producers, 18861926 (Johannesburg, 1994); J. Krikler, The Commandos: The Army of White Labour in South Africa, Past and Present 163 (1999), 202-44; A. Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 19191939 (Basingstoke, 1986), p. 241244; J. Krikler, White Rising: The 1922 Insurrection and Racial Killing in South Africa (Manchester, 2005).

1099

C. Townsend, The British Campaign in Ireland, 19191921 (Oxford, 1975).

1100

W. Wilson, Letters, 250, p. 266272.

1101

J. Lawrence, Forging a Peaceable Kingdom: War, Violence, and Fear of Brutalization in Post-First World War Britain, The Journal of Modern History 75, no. 3 (September 2003), p. 557589.

1102

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 1, p. 314.

1103

M. Hopkinson, President Woodrow Wilson and the Irish Question, Studia Hibernica 27(19934 p. 89111.

1104

: J. Darwin, Britain, Egypt and the Middle East: Imperial Policy in the Aftermath of War, 19181922 (London, 1981).

1105

W. Stivers, Supremacy and Oil: Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 19181930 (Ithaca, NY, 1982) p. 4550.

1106

M. W. Daly (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt (New York, 1998), vol. 2, p. 246247.

1107

Ibid., p. 247248. .: Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 2, p. 44.

1108

J. Berque, Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution (New York, 1972), p. 305.

1109

M. Badrawi, Ismail Sidqi, 18751950 (Richmond, VA, 1996), p. 14.

1110

M. A. Rifaat, The Monetary System of Egypt (London, 1935), p. 6364; A. E. Crouchley, The Economic Development of Modern Egypt (London, 1938), p. 197.

1111

Berque, Egypt, p. 316.

1112

Berque, Egypt, p. 318.

1113

J. L. Thompson, A Wider Patriotism: Alfred Milner and the British Empire (London, 2007),p. 184195.

1114

Berque, Egypt, p. 315316.

1115

Gallagher, Nationalisms, p. 361.

1116

. : E. Kedourie, The Chatham House Version and Other Middle-Eastern Studies (London, 1970), p. 121.

1117

L. Stein, The Balfour Declaration (New York, 1961), p. 640645.

1118

E. Monroe, Britains Moment in the Middle East, 19141956 (Baltimore, MD, 1963), p. 6566.

1119

Q. Wright, The Bombardment of Damascus, The American Journal of International Law 20 (1926), p. 263280; D. Eldar, France in Syria: The Abolition of the Sharifian Government, April-July 1920, Middle Eastern Studies 29 (1993), p. 487504.

1120

Stivers, Supremacy and Oil, 84, E. Kedourie, The Kingdom of Iraq: A Retrospect, in Kedourie, Chatham House Version, p. 236285.

1121

Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 1, p. 347.

1122

I. Friedman, British Miscalculations: The Rise of Muslim Nationalism, 19181925 (New Brunswick, NJ, 2012), p. 252.

1123

B. Gökay, A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 19181923 (London, 1997).

1124

B. Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey (Oxford, 1961), p. 247251.

1125

Gökay, Clash of Empires, p. 131.

1126

G. Balachandran, John Bullions Empire: Britains Gold Problem and India Between the Wars (London, 1996).

1127

B. R. Tomlinson, The Political Economy of the Raj, 19141947: The Economics of Decolonization in India (London, 1979).

1128

J. Brown, Gandhis Rise to Power: Indian Politics, 19151922 (Cambridge, 1972), p. 161.

1129

Ibid., p. 231.

1130

Friedman, British Miscalculations, p. 229.

1131

Brown, Gandhi, p. 202.

1132

P. Woods, Roots of Parliamentary Democracy in India: Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, 19171923 (Delhi, 1996) p. 139140.

1133

A. Rumbold, Watershed in India, 19141922 (London, 1979), p. 160193.

1134

W. R. Smith, Nationalism and Reform in India (New Haven, CT, 1938), p. 108109.

1135

Ibid., p. 118119.

1136

: G. Pandey, Peasant Revolt and Indian Nationalism: The Peasant Movement in Awadh, 19191922, in R. Guha (ed.), Subaltern Studies (Delhi, 19821989) vol.1, p. 143191.

1137

D. A. Low, The Government of India and the First Non-Cooperation Movement 19201922, The Journal of Asian Studies 25 (1966), p. 247248.

1138

Rumbold, Watershed, p. 266267.

1139

. : Wilson, Letters, p. 306307.

1140

Woods, Roots, p. 157169.

1141

Low, Government of India, p. 252.

1142

Rumbold, Watershed, p. 294.

1143

Ibid., p. 301303.

1144

Monroe, Britains Moment, p. 6970.

1145

D. Waley, Edwin Montagu (New Delhi, 1964), p. 270.

1146

K. Mantena, Alibis of Empire: Henry Maine and the Ends of Liberal Imperialism (Princeton, NJ, 2010).

1147

D. A. Low, Lion Rampant: Essays in the Study of British Imperialism (London, 1973), p. 157.

1148

, . : J. Darwin, Imperialism in Decline?, Historical Journal 23 (1980), p. 657679.

1149

. : F. Cooper, Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History (Berkeley, CA, 2005). See also Low, Lion Rampant, p. 7072.

1150

H. Tinker, Separate and Unequal: India and the Indians in the British Commonwealth, 19201950 (Vancouver, 1976), p. 4377.

1151

Woods, Roots, p. 232.

1152

Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 1, p. 31213; Waley, Montagu, 258; Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 2, p. 30.

1153

W. R. Louis, British Strategy in the Far East, 19191939 (Oxford, 1971), p. 5078; M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 1, p. 318324.

1154

N. Tracy, The Collective Naval Defence of the Empire, 19001940 (London, 1997).

1155

S. Roskill, Naval Policy Between the Wars (New York, 1968), vol. 1, p. 271290.

1156

Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 1, p. 332343.

1157

L. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 19131923 (Oxford, 1987),p. 307309.

1158

T. H. Buckley, The United States and the Washington Conference, 19211922 (Knoxville, TN, 1970), p. 3037.

1159

M. G. Fry, Illusions of Security: North Atlantic Diplomacy, 19181922 (Toronto, 1972), p. 144151.

1160

Roskill, Naval Policy, vol. 1, p. 311.

1161

, ; .: Buckley, The United States, p. 74.

1162

The Arms Conference in Action, Current History 15, 3 December 1921, p. i.

1163

Ibid., p. xxxii.

1164

A. Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 19211931 (Cambridge, MA, 1965), p. 14.

1165

L. Humphreys, The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920s (Stanford,CA, 1995), p. 46.

1166

Buckley, United States, p. 59.

1167

I. Gow, Military Intervention in Prewar Japanese Politics: Admiral Kato-Kanji and the Washington System (London, 2004), p. 82101.

1168

Fry, Illusions of Security, p. 154186.

1169

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1922), vol. 1, p. 130133.

1170

B. Martin, France and the Après Guerre, 19181924: Illusions and Disillusionment (Baton Rouge, FL, 1999), p. 8789.

1171

E. Goldstein and J. Maurer (eds), The Washington Conference, 19211922: Naval Rivalry, East Asian Stability and the Road to Pearl Harbour (London, 1994).

1172

Roskill, Naval Policy, vol. 1, p. 354.

1173

D. Wang, Chinas Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History (Oxford, 2005).

1174

Arms Conference, Current History 15, p. 383384.

1175

G. McCormack, Chang Tso-lin in Northeast China, 19111928: China, Japan, and the Manchurian Idea (Stanford, CA, 1977), p. 5266.

1176

M. Metzler, Lever of Empire: The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan (Berkeley, CA, 2005), p. 129.

1177

E. S. K. Fung, The Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat: Britains South China Policy, 19241932 (Hong Kong p. 1825.

1178

Y. Zhang, China in the International System, 19181920 (Basingstoke, 1991), p. 184185.

1179

W. King, China at the Washington Conference, 19211922 (New York, 1963), p. 1819.

1180

Goldstein and Maurer, Washington Conference, p. 263.

1181

. , : King, China, p. 3839.

1182

Metzler, Lever of Empire, p. 127.

1183

Gardner, Safe for Democracy, p. 313.

1184

Ibid., p. 313.

1185

Iriye, After Imperialism, p. 29.

1186

Gardner, Safe for Democracy, p. 318319.

1187

Ibid., p. 320.

1188

R. A. Dayer, Bankers and Diplomats in China, 19171925 (London, 1981), p. 155161.

1189

M. Lewin, Lenins Last Struggle (New York, 1968).

1190

: R. Hofheinz The Broken Wave: The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement, 19221928 (Cambridge, MA, 1977), 3, , .

1191

A. S. Lindemann, The Red Years: European Socialism versus Bolshevism, 19191921 (Berkeley, CA, 1974), p. 4868.

1192

C. S. Maier, Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I (Princeton, NJ, 1975), p. 113174; F. H. Adler, Italian Industrialists from Liberalism to Fascism (New York, 1995), p. 165168; G. Salvemini, The Origins of Fascism in Italy (New York, 1973), p. 206208.

1193

P. Pastor (ed.), Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and its Neighbor States, 19181919 (Boulder, CO, 1988).

1194

C. Kinvig, Churchills Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia, 19181920 (London, 2006), P. 283285.

1195

N. Davies, White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 19191920 (London, 1972), P. 7176.

1196

R. Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime (New York, 1994), p. 9192; . , . 3. ., 2005, . 108.

1197

Davies, White Eagle, Red Star, p. 9091.

1198

C. E. Bechhofer, In Denikins Russia and the Caucasus, 19181920 (London, 1921), p. 120122.

1199

T. Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 15691999 (New Haven, CT, 2003), p. 63139.

1200

G. A. Brinkley, Allied Policy and French Intervention in the Ukraine, 19171920, in T. Hunczak (ed.), The Ukraine, 19171921: A Study in Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1977), p. 345351.

1201

N. Davies, The Missing Revolutionary War, Soviet Studies 27 (1975), p. 178195.

1202

Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime, 179183; . , . 3, . 225227.

1203

T. Fiddick, The Miracle of the Vistula: Soviet Policy versus Red Army Strategy, The Journal of Modern History 45 (1973), p. 626643.

1204

.: M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 1, p. 328329.

1205

J. Degras (ed.), The Communist International: Documents, 19191943 (London, 1956-65), vol. 1, p. 111113.

1206

Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime, p. 177; . , . 3, . 223.

1207

O. Ruehle, Report from Moscow, http: // www.marxists.org/archive/ruhle/1920/ruhle01.htm.

1208

Lindemann, Red Years, p. 102219.

1209

Degras, The Communist International, 19191943, p. 166172.

1210

J. Jacobson, When the Soviet Union Entered World Politics (Berkeley, CA, 1994), p. 5158.

1211

J. P. Haithcox, Communism and Nationalism in India: M. N. Roy and Comintern Policy, 19201939 (Princeton, NJ, 1971).

1212

S. White, Britain and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Study in the Politics of Diplomacy, 19201924 (London, 1979), p. 120.

1213

S. Blank, Soviet Politics and the Iranian Revolution of 19191921, Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique 21 (1980), p. 173194.

1214

S. White, Communism and the East: The Baku Congress, 1920, Slavic Review 33 (1974), p. 492514.

1215

J. Riddell (ed.), To See the Dawn: Baku, 1920 First Congress of the Peoples of the East (New York, 1993), p. 4752.

1216

Ibid., p. 232.

1217

Jacobson, When the Soviet Union, p. 77.

1218

N. Davies, The Soviet Command and the Battle of Warsaw, Soviet Studies 23 (1972), . 573585.

1219

H. G. Linke, Der Weg nach Rapallo: Strategie und Taktik der deutschen und sowjetischen Außenpolitik, Historische Zeitschrift 264 (1997), p. 63.

1220

Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 1, p. 328329.

1221

Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime, p. 134, 164; . , . 3, . 173, 210.

1222

S. R. Sonyel, Enver Pasha and the Basmaji Movement in Central Asia, Middle Eastern Studies 26 (1990), p. 5264.

1223

: Jacobson, When the Soviet Union.

1224

B. Gökay, A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 19181923 (London, 1997), p. 148149.

1225

B. A. Elleman, Diplomacy and Deception: The Secret History of Sino-Soviet Diplomatic Relations, 19171927 (Armonk, NY, 1997).

1226

P. Dukes, The USA in the Making of the USSR: The Washington Conference, 19211922, and Uninvited Russia (New York and London, 2004), p. 5761.

1227

J. K. Fairbank and D. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China, vol. 12, Republican China, 19121949, Part 1 (Cambridge, 1983), p. 541.

1228

A. J. Saich, The Origins of the First United Front in China: The Role of Sneevliet (Alias Maring) (Leiden, 1991).

1229

G. D. Jackson, Comintern and Peasant in Eastern Europe, 19191930 (New York, 1966), P. 93.

1230

Ibid., p. 60.

1231

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1921), vol. 2, p. 805.

1232

B. M. Weissman, Herbert Hoover and Famine Relief to Soviet Russia, 19211923 (Stanford, W4) p. 1516.

1233

A. Orde, British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Cambridge, 1990), p. 162.

1234

S. White, The Origins of Détente: The Genoa Conference and Soviet-Western Relations, 19211922 (Cambridge, 1985), p. 2627.

1235

Orde, British Policy, p. 163; C. Fink, The Genoa Conference: European Diplomacy, 19211922 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1984), p. 6.

1236

P. Dukes, The USA in the Making of the USSR: The Washington Conference, 19211922, and Uninvited Russia (New York and London, 2004), p. 71.

1237

B. Patenaude, The Big Show in Bololand: The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921 (Stanford, CA, 2002).

1238

C. M. Edmondson, The Politics of Hunger: The Soviet Response to Famine, 1921, Soviet Studies 29 (1977), p. 506518.

1239

G. D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 19141924 (Oxford, 1993), p. 346412.

1240

Ibid., p. 388.

1241

G. D. Feldman, Hugo Stinnes: Biographie eines Industriellen 18701924 (Munich, 1998), p. 720738.

1242

Orde, British Policy, p. 177.

1243

R. Himmer, Rathenau, Russia, and Rapallo, Central European History 9 (1976), p. 146183.

1244

H. G. Linke, Der Weg nach Rapallo: Strategie und Taktik der deutschen und sowjetischen Außenpolitik, Historische Zeitschrift 264 (1997), p. 82.

1245

A. Heywood, Modernising Lenins Russia: Economic Reconstruction, Foreign Trade and the Railways (Cambridge, 1999), p. 6.

1246

Orde, British Policy, p. 170178.

1247

B. Martin, France and the Après Guerre, 19181924: Illusions and Disillusionment (Baton Rouge LA, p. 96.

1248

Documents on British Foreign Policy, 19191939, 1st ser. [DBFP] (London, 1974), vol. 1314, p. 5758. , : P. Jackson, French Security and a British Continental Commitment after the First World War: A Reassessment, English Historical Review CCXVI (2011), p. 519, 345385. , , . : A.-M. Lauter, Sicherheit und Reparationen. Diefranzösische Öffentlichkeit, der Rhein und die Ruhr (19191923) (Essen, 2006), p. 232242, 286290.

1249

, 1921 1922 , . : DBFP, vol. 9.

1250

White, The Origins, p. 45.

1251

Orde, British Policy, p. 180182.

1252

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 382.

1253

Martin, France, p. 97126.

1254

J. Keiger, Raymond Poincaré (Cambridge, 1997), p. 279283.

1255

The New Republic, 8 March 1922, p. 3033.

1256

DBFP, vol. 19, p. 171172.

1257

Ibid., p. 300.

1258

Martin, France, 128; Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 383.

1259

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 410431.

1260

Ibid., p. 421.

1261

Ibid., p. 431434.

1262

C. S. Maier, Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I (Princeton, NJ, 1975), p. 282283; M. Berg, Gustav Stresemann und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika: Weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und Revisionspolitik, 19071929 (Baden-Baden, 1990), p. 108109.

1263

Fink, Genoa, p. 8386.

1264

W. Link, Die Amerikanische Stabilisierungspolitik in Deutschland, 19211932 (Dusseldorf, 1970), p. 174.

1265

DBFP, vol. 19, p. 342.

1266

White, The Origins, p. 8294.

1267

DBFP, vol. 19, p. 393.

1268

Ibid., p. 348351.

1269

White, The Origins, p. 107109.

1270

Fink, Genoa, p. 60.

1271

R. Himmer, Rathenau, Russia and Rapallo, Central European History 9 (1976), p. 146183.

1272

J. Siegel, For Peace and Money (Oxford, 2014, forthcoming), chapter 5.

1273

Fink, Genoa, p. 174175.

1274

, .: White, The Origins, p. 110.

1275

. : DBFP, vol. 19, p. 377378.

1276

Linke, Der Weg, p. 77.

1277

B. Gökay, A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 19181923 (London, 1997), p. 119.

1278

Berg, Stresemann, p. 109; Maier, Recasting, p. 284.

1279

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 450.

1280

Gökay, Clash of Empires, p. 119.

1281

J. C. Cairns, A Nation of Shopkeepers in Search of a Suitable France: 19191940, The American Historical Review 79, no. 3 (June 1974), p. 720.

1282

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire, 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 2, p. 7980.

1283

Z. Steiner, The Lights that Failed: European International History, 19191933 (Oxford, 2005), p. 113120.

1284

J. R. Ferris, The Evolution of British Strategic Policy, 19191926 (Basingstoke, 1989), p. 120.

1285

Gökay, Clash of Empires, p. 164.

1286

D. P. Silverman, Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (Cambridge, MA, 1982), p. 179180.

1287

R. Self, Britain, America and the War Debt Controversy: The Economic Diplomacy of an Unspecial Relationship, 19171941 (London, 2006), p. 3654.

1288

B. D. Rhodes, Reassessing Uncle Shylock: The United States and the French War Debt, 19171929, The Journal of American History 55, no. 4 (March 1969), p. 793.

1289

A. Turner, Keynes, the Treasury and French War Debts in the 1920s, European History Quarterly 27 69974 p. 505.

1290

M. P. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: Americas Pursuit of European Stability and French Security, 19191933 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979), p. 69.

1291

Link, Stabilisierungspolitik, p. 175.

1292

B. Martin, France and the Après Guerre, 19181924: Illusions and Disillusionment (Baton Rouge, LA, 1999) p. 132150.

1293

A.-M. Lauter, Sicherheit und Reparationen: die französische Öffentlichkeit, der Rhein und die Ruhr (19191923) (Essen, 2006), p. 292301.

1294

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1922), vol. 1, p. 557558.

1295

W. Link, Die amerikanische Stabilisierungspolitik in Deutschland 19211932 (Düsseldorf, 1970), p. 122147.

1296

S. A. Schuker, Europes Banker: The American Banking Community and European Reconstruction, 19181922, in M. Petricioli and M. Guderzo (eds), Une Occasion manquée 1922: la reconstruction de lEurope (Frankfurt, 1995), p. 56.

1297

P. Liberman, Does Conquest Pay? The Exploitation of Occupied Industrial Societies (Princeton, NJ, 1996), p. 8798.

1298

Martin, France, p. 156; The New York Times, Clemenceau Feels So Sure of Success Hes a Boy Again, 23 November 1922, p. 13.

1299

M. J. Pusey, Charles Evans Hughes (New York, 1951), vol. 2, p. 581582.

1300

C. E. Hughes, The Pathway of Peace: Representative Addresses Delivered during his Termas Secretary of State (19211925) (New York, 1925), p. 57; Link, Stabilisierungspolitik, p. 168174.

1301

W. I. Shorrock, France and the Rise of Fascism in Italy, 19191923, Journal of Contemporary History 10 (1975), p. 591610.

1302

Martin, France, p. 165.

1303

C. Fischer, The Ruhr Crisis, 19231924 (Oxford, 2003), p. 86107.

1304

Ibid., p. 176.

1305

G. Krumeich and J. Schröder (eds), Der Schatten des Weltkrieges: Die Ruhrbesetzung, 1923 (Essen, 2004), p. 207224.

1306

G. D. Feldman, The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 19141924 (Oxford, 1993), p. 637669; C. S. Maier, Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World War I (Princeton, NJ, 1975), p. 367376.

1307

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 705766.

1308

P. Cohrs, The Unfinished Peace after World War I (Cambridge, 2006), p. 88; M. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: Americas Pursuit of European Stability and French Security, 19191933 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979), p. 86; B. Glad, Charles Evans Hughes and the Illusions of Innocence: A Study of American Diplomacy (Urbana, IL, 1966), p. 219223.

1309

S. Adler, The Uncertain Giant, 19211941: American Foreign Policy Between the Wars (New York, 1965), p. 75.

1310

FRUS: Lansing Papers, 1923, vol. 2, p. 56.

1311

W. Louis, British Strategy in the Far East, 19191939 (Oxford, 1971), p. 104.

1312

M. Howard, The Continental Commitment: The Dilemma of British Defence Policy in the Era of the Two World Wars (London, 1972), p. 8184.

1313

Link, Stabilisierungspolitik, p. 179187.

1314

P. Yearwood, Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy, 19141925 (Oxford, 2009), p. 253.

1315

Ibid., p. 264265.

1316

M. Berg, Gustav Stresemann und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika: weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und Revisionspolitik, 19071929 (Baden-Baden, 1990).

1317

Fischer, The Ruhr Crisis, p. 230.

1318

Martin, France, p. 188.

1319

H.-P. Schwarz, Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution, and Reconstruction (Oxford, 1995), vol. 1, p. 171194.

1320

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 768.

1321

R. Scheck, Politics of Illusion: Tirpitz and Right-Wing Putschism, 19221924, German Studies Review 18 (1995), p. 2949.

1322

A. Wirsching, Vom Weltkrieg zum Buergerkrieg? Politischer Extremismus in Deutschland und Frankreich, 19181933/39. Berlin und Paris im Vergleich (Munich, 1999), p. 238.

1323

D. R. Stone, The Prospect of War? Lev Trotskii, the Soviet Army, and the German Revolution in 1923, The International History Review 25, no. 4 (December 2003), p. 799817.

1324

G. Feldman, Bayern und Sachsen in der Hyperinflation 1922, Historische Zeitschrift 238(1984), p. 569609.

1325

D. Pryce, The Reich Government versus Saxony, 1923: The Decision to Intervene, Central European History 10 (1977), p. 112147.

1326

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 774.

1327

K. Schwabe (ed.), Die Ruhrkrise 1923: Wendepunkt der internationalen Beziehungen nachdem Ersten Weltkrieg (Paderborn, 1985), p. 2938.

1328

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 776777.

1329

G. Schulz (ed.), Konrad Adenauer 19171933 (Cologne, 2003), 203232, and K. D. Erdmann, Adenauer in der Rheinlandpolitik nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg (Stuttgart, 1966).

1330

Schulz, Konrad Adenauer 19171933, p. 346.

1331

Maier, Great Disorder, p. 393.

1332

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 825.

1333

Ibid., p. 661.

1334

Berg, Stresemann, p. 160, 168169, 171.

1335

Link, Stabilisierungspolitik, p. 206207.

1336

A. Orde, British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Camtiridge 1990), p. 244.

1337

Krumeich and Schroeder (eds), Der Schatten, p. 80.

1338

J. Bariéty, Les Relations Franco-Allemands aprés la Premire Guerre Mondiale (Paris, 1977), p. 263265.

1339

Berg, Stresemann, p. 159.

1340

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 9495.

1341

Ibid., p. 99.

1342

Yearwood, Guarantee of Peace, p. 273289.

1343

D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (London, 1997), p. 297305.

1344

The Times, MacDonald on Ruhr, 12 February 1923, 12, and Mr. MacDonald On Ruhr Success, 26 September 1923.

1345

Marquand, MacDonald, 333; The Times, Labour and Allied Debts, 13 December 1923.

1346

J. C. Cairns, A Nation of Shopkeepers in Search of a Suitable France: 19191940, The American Historical Review 79, no. 3 (June 1974), p. 721.

1347

Martin, France, p. 189192.

1348

S. A. Schuker, The End of French Predominance in Europe: The Financial Crisis of 1924 and the Adoption of the Dawes Plan (Chapel Hill, NC, 1976), p. 28, 5357.

1349

E. L. Dulles, The French Franc, 19141928: The Facts and their Interpretation (New York, 1929), p. 170174.

1350

Martin, France, p. 232233; Maier, Recasting, p. 460471.

1351

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 97.

1352

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 829.

1353

D. Neri-Ultsch, Sozialisten und Radicaux eine schwierige Allianz (Munich, 2005).

1354

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 100104.

1355

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 105.

1356

FRUS: Lansing Papers, 1924, vol. 2, p. 2830; B. Glad, Charles Evans Hughes and the Illusions of Innocence: A Study in American Diplomacy (Urbana, IL, 1966), p. 227.

1357

Schuker, End of French Predominance, p. 103.

1358

J. Wright, Gustav Stresemann: Weimars Greatest Statesman (Oxford, 2002), p. 275.

1359

Scheck, Politics of Illusion.

1360

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 801.

1361

T. Raithel, Das Schwierige Spiel des Parlamentarismus: Deutscher Reichstag und französische Chambre des Députés in den Inflationskrisen der 1920er Jahre (Munich, 2005), p. 196341.

1362

Feldman, Great Disorder, p. 822823.

1363

Ibid., p. 815, 802.

1364

Leffler, Elusive Quest, p. 111.

1365

W. McNeil, American Money and the Weimar Republic: Economics and Politics on the Eve of the Great Depression (New York, 1986), p. 33.

1366

Cohrs, Unfinished Peace.

1367

. : www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/ laureates/1926/stresemann-lecture.html.

1368

Realpolitik .: L. Haupts, Deutsche Friedens-politik, 19181919 (Dusseldorf, 1976).

1369

S. Hoffmann, Gullivers Troubles, or the Setting of American Foreign Policy (New York, p. 53.

1370

Documents on British Foreign Policy, 19191939 [DBFP], series 1a, vol. 5, ed. E. L. Woodward and Rohan Butler (London, 1973), p. 85775; B. McKercher, The Second Baldwin Government and the United States, 19241929: Attitudes and Diplomacy (Cambridge, 1984), p. 174.

1371

W. Link, Die amerikanische Stabilisierungspolitik in Deutschland 1921-32 (Düsseldorf, 1970) p. 223241.

1372

W. McNeil, American Money and the Weimar Republic: Economics and Politics on the Eve of the Great Depression (New York, 1986).

1373

A. Ritschl, Deutschlands Krise und Konjunktur, 19241934: Binnenkonjunktur, Auslands-verschuldung und Reparationsproblem zwischen Dawes-Plan und Transfersperre (Berlin, 2002).

1374

A. Thimme, Gustav Stresemann: Legende und Wirklichkeit, Historische Zeitschrift 181 (1956) p. 314.

1375

R. Boyce, British Capitalism at the Crossroads, 19191932 (New York, 1987), p. 6678.

1376

K. Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Times (Boston, MA, 1944), p. 27; . : . ., 2002, . 37.

1377

G. Gorodetsky, The Soviet Union and Britains General Strike of May 1926, Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 17, no. 2/3 (1976), p. 287310; J. Jacobson, When the Soviet Union Entered World Politics (Berkeley, CA, 1994), p. 169172.

1378

Diggins, Flirtation with Fascism: American Pragmatic Liberals and Mussolinis Italy, The American Historical Review 71, no. 2 (1966), p. 487506.

1379

S. Romano, Guiseppe Volpi et litalie moderne: Finance, industrie et état de lnre giolittienne la deuxinme guerre mondiale (Rome, 1982).

1380

G. Allen, The Recent Currency and Exchange Policy of Japan, The Economic Journal 35, no. 137 69254 p. 6683.

1381

M. Metzler, Lever of Empire: The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan (Berkeley, CA, 2005), p. 149.

1382

R. A. Dayer, Bankers and Diplomats in China, 19171925: The Anglo-American Relationship (London, 1981), p. 178.

1383

B. D. Rhodes, Reassessing Uncle Shylock: The United States and the French War Debt, 19171929, The Journal of American History 55, no. 4 (March 1969), p. 787803.

1384

1920- .: K.-J. Müller, Faschismus in Frankreichs Dritter Republik?, in H. Müller and M. Kittel (eds), Demokratie in Deutschland und Frankreich, 19181933/40 (Munich, 2002), p. 91130.

1385

T. Raithel, Das schwierige Spiel des Parlamentarismus: Deutscher Reichstag und fran-zösische Chambre des Députés in den Inflationskrisen der 1920er Jahre (Munich, 2005), p. 480519.

1386

D. Amson, Poincaré: Lacharné de la politique (Paris, 1997), p. 352353.

1387

R. M. Haig, The Public Finances of Post-War France (New York, 1929), p. 173.

1388

R. Boyce, The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization (Basingstoke, 2009), p. 165.

1389

M. P. Leffler, The Elusive Quest: Americas Pursuit of European Stability and French Security 19191933 (Chapel Hill NC, W9) p. 153.

1390

R. Boyce, British Capitalism at the Crossroads, 19191932 (New York, 1987), p. 144146.

1391

P. Yearwood, Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy, 19141925 (Oxford, 2009), p. 342.

1392

M. Beloff, Imperial Sunset: Britains Liberal Empire 18971921 (London, 1969), vol. 2, 140, . : DBFP, series 1a, III, p. 734.

1393

Yearwood, Guarantee, p. 342.

1394

Boyce, Great Interwar Crisis, p. 133.

1395

J. R. Ferris, The Evolution of British Strategic Policy, 19191926 (Basingstoke, 1989), p. 158178.

1396

Yearwood, Guarantee, p. 355.

1397

G. Unger, Aristide Briand: Leferme conciliateur (Paris, 2005), p. 532537.

1398

P. O. Cohrs, The Unfinished Peace after World War I: America, Britain and the Stabilisation of Europe, 19191932 (Cambridge, 2006), p. 448476.

1399

J. Wheeler-Bennett, Information on the Renunciation of War, 19271928 (London, 1928),p. 56.

1400

Jacobson, When the Soviet Union, p. 247.

1401

A. Iriye, The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations, vol. 3, The Globalizing of America, 19131945 (Cambridge, 1993), p. 103106.

1402

Cohrs, Unfinished Peace, p. 378409.

1403

J. Keiger, Raymond Poincaré (Cambridge, 1997), p. 337340.

1404

McKercher, The Second Baldwin Government and the United States, 19241929, p. 174.

1405

Beloff, Imperial Sunset, vol. 2, p. 142143.

1406

L. Trotsky, Disarmament and the United States of Europe (October 1929) http: //www. marxists.org/archive/trotsky/L929/L0/disarm.htm; . . // (-). 1929. 4 ( 6), http: // web.mit.edu/fjk/www/Fl/BO/BO-06.shtml.

1407

D. Marquand, Ramsay MacDonald (London, 1997), p. 507.

1408

Z. Steiner, The Lights that Failed: European International History, 19191933 (Oxford, 2005), p. 510518.

1409

Jacobson, When the Soviet Union, p. 183188, 224229.

1410

A. Waldron, From War to Nationalism: Chinas Turning Point, 19241925 (Cambridge, 1995).

1411

J. Fairbank (ed.), The Cambridge History of China, vol. 12, Republican China, 19121949. Part 1 (Cambridge, 2008), p. 314315; L. Humphreys, The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920s (Stanford, CA, 1995), p. 130.

1412

Dayer, Bankers, p. 186187.

1413

C. Martin Wilbur and J. Lien-Ying, Missionaries of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China, 19201927 (Cambridge, MA, 1989), p. 90100.

1414

E. Fung, The Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat: Britains South China Policy, 19241931 (Hong Kong, 1991), p. 4254.

1415

R. Hofheinz, The Broken Wave: The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement, 19221928 (Cambridge, MA, 1977).

1416

Wilbur and Lien-Ying, Missionaries of Revolution, p. 108112; P. Zarrow, China in War and Revolution, 18951949 (London, 2005), p. 216221.

1417

R. Karl, Mao Zedong and China in the Twentieth-Century World: A Concise History (Durham, NC, 2010), p. 29.

1418

S. Schram (ed.), Maos Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings, 19121949 (New York, 1944 vol 2, p. 421.

1419

J. Solecki and C. Martin Wilbur, Blüchers Grand Plan of 1926, The China Quarterly 35 (1968), p. 1839.

1420

H. Kuo, Die Komintern und die Chinesische Revolution (Paderborn, 1979), p. 148.

1421

B. Elleman, Moscow and the Emergence of Communist Power in China, 19251930 (London, 2009), p. 2336.

1422

Karl, Mao Zedong, p. 30.

1423

Schram (ed.), Maos Road to Power, vol. 2, p. 430.

1424

S. Craft, V. K. Wellington Koo and the Emergence of Modern China (Lexington, KY, 2004), p. 86.

1425

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Lansing Papers (Washington, DC, 1926), vol. 1, p. 924; A. Iriye, China and Japan in the Global Setting (Cambridge, MA, 1992), p. 99101.

1426

Fung, Diplomacy, p. 100111.

1427

Ibid., p. 131132.

1428

A. Clayton, The British Empire as a Superpower, 1919-39 (Basingstoke, 1986), p. 207208.

1429

Zarrow, China, p. 236237.

1430

M. Murdock, Exploiting Anti-Imperialism: Popular Forces and Nation-State-Building during Chinas Northern Expedition, 19261927, Modern China 35, no. 1 (2009), p. 6595.

1431

Fung, The Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat, p. 137144.

1432

Kuo, Komintern, p. 202217.

1433

Karl, Mao Zedong, p. 33.

1434

Hofheinz, The Broken Wave, p. 5363.

1435

Craft, Wellington Koo, 92.

1436

M. Jabara Carley, Episodes from the Early Cold War: Franco-Soviet Relations, 19171927, Europe-Asia Studies 52, no. 7 (2000), 1, p. 297.

1437

L. Viola, The War Against the Peasantry, 19271930: The Tragedy of the Soviet Countryside (New Haven, CT, 2005), p. 956.

1438

L. D. Trotsky, The New Course in the Economy of the Soviet Union (March 1930), http: // www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1930/03/newcourse.htm; . . // (-). 1930. 13 ( 9), http: // web.mit.edu/fjk/www/Fl/BO/ BO-09.shtml.

1439

P. Duus (ed.), The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6: The Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1988), p. 286282.

1440

Humphreys, Heavenly Sword, p. 136142.

1441

W. F. Morton, Tanaka Giichi and Japans China Policy (New York, 1980), p. 71.

1442

K. Colegrove, Parliamentary Government in Japan, The American Political Science Review 21 no 4 (1927), p. 835852.

1443

Humphreys, Heavenly Sword, p. 122157.

1444

N. Bamba, Japanese Diplomacy in a Dilemma (Vancouver, 1972), p. 134.

1445

T. Sekiguchi, Political Conditions in Japan: After the Application of Manhood Suffrage, Pacific Affairs 3, no. 10 (1930), p. 907922.

1446

M. Friedman and A. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 18671960 (Princeton, NJ, 1963) K. Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of our Times (Boston, MA, 1944), p. 2144.

1447

B. Eichengreen, Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 19191939 (Oxford, 1992) A. Meltzer, A History of the Federal Reserve (Chicago, IL, 2003), vol. 1.

1448

H. James, The German Slump: Politics and Economics, 19241936 (Oxford 1986).

1449

Z. Steiner, The Lights that Failed: European International History, 19191933 (Oxford, 2005), p. 470491; P. Heyde, Das Ende der Reparationen (Paderborn, 1998), . 3577; P- Cohrs, The Unfinished Peace after World War I: America, Britain and the Stabilisation of Europe, 19191932 (Cambridge, 2006), p. 477571.

1450

S. Schuker, Les États-Unis, la France et lEurope, 19291932, in J. Bariéty (ed.), Aristide Briand, la Société des Nations et lEurope, 19191932 (Strasbourg, 2007), p. 385.

1451

L. Trotsky, Disarmament and the United States of Europe (October 1929) http: // www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1929/10/disarm.htm; . . // (-). 1929. 4 ( 6), http: // web.mit.edu/fjk/www/FI/BO/BO-06.shtml. // (-). 1929. 4 ( 6), http: //web.mit.edu/fjk/www/Fl/BO/BO-06.shtml.

1452

S. Adler, The Uncertain Giant, 19211941: American Foreign Policy Between the Wars (New York, 1965), p. 79.

1453

A. Ritschl, Deutschlands Krise und Konjunktur 19241934: Binnenkonjunktur, Auslandsverschuldung und Reparationsproblem zwischen Dawes-Plan und Transfersperre (Berlin, 2002).

1454

B. Fulda, Press and Politics in the Weimar Republic (Oxford, 2009), p. 1441446.

1455

H. Mommsen, The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996).

1456

F. R. Dickinson, World War I and the Triumph of a New Japan, 19191930 (Cambridge,2013), p. 185186.

1457

Adler, Uncertain Giant, p. 130.

1458

R. Sims, Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation: 18682000 (London, 2001), p. 150.

1459

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Schuker, États-Unis, p. 393.

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Schuker, États-Unis, p. 395.

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A. Tooze, Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (London, 2006).

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C. Thorne, The Limits of Foreign Policy: The West, the League and the Far Eastern Crisis of 19311933 (London, 1972).

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H. Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919 (London, 1933), p. 108.

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1503

R. Boyce, The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization (Basingstoke, 2009), p. 251.

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