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1

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2

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3

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4

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5

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6

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11

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12

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13

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15

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16

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17

J. Baron, and R. Sternberg. Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice (New York: Freeman, 1987).

18

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19

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20

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22

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23

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24

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28

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33

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34

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35

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36

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37

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38

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39

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40

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41

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42

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43

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44

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45

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46

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47

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48

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49

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50

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51

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52

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53

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54

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55

R. Sternberg. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Creativity, and Wisdom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (1985), pp. 607627.

56

R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, and L. Okagaki. Practical Intelligence: The Nature and Role of Tacit Knowledge in Work and at School. : H. Reese, and J. Puckett. Advances in Lifespan Development (Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1993), pp. 205227. R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits: The Role of Tacit Knowledge. Journal of Personality, and Social Psychology 49 (1985), pp. 436458.

57

R. Sternberg. In Search of the Human Mind (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995).

58

R. Sternberg. Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

59

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60

L. Spear-Swerling. .

61

R. Edgerton. The Cloak of Competence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967).

62

L. Okagaki, and R. Sternberg. Parental Beliefs and Childrens School Performance. Child Development 64, 1 (1993), pp. 3656.

63

S. Heath. Ways with Words (New York: Cambridge University Press, l983).

64

C. Snow, W. Barnes, J. Chandler, J. Goodman, and L. Hemphill. Unfulfilled Expectations: Home and School Influences on Literacy (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1991).

65

R. Sternberg, and P. Clinlcenbeard. A Triarchic View of Identifying, Teaching, and Assessing Gifted Children. Roeper Review 17, 4 (1995), pp. 255260.

R. Sternberg, M. Ferran, P. Clinkenbeard, and E. Grigorenko. Identification, Instruction, and Assessment of Gifted Children: A Construct Validation of a Triarchic Model. Gifted Child Quarterly ( ).

66

R. Sternberg. In Search of the Human Mind.

67

M. Csikszentmihalyi. Society, Culture, and Person: A Systems View of Creativity. : R. Sternberg. The Nature of Creativity (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 325339.

68

R. Sternberg. Intelligence and Nonentrenchment. Journal of Educational Psychology 73 (1981), pp. 116.

69

M. Chi, R. Glaser, and E. Rees. Expertise in Problem Solving. : R. Sternberg. Advances in Psychology of Human Intelligence, vol. 1 (Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1982), pp. 775. J. Larkin, J. McDermott, D. Simon, and H. Simon. Expert and Novice Performance in Solving Physics Problems. Science 208 (1980), pp. 13351342.

70

W. Mischel, Y. Shoda, and P. Peake. The Nature of Adolescent Competencies Predicted by Pre-School Delay of Gratification. Journal of Personality, and Social Psychology 54 (1988), pp. 687696.

71

M. Snyder, E. Tanke, and E. Berscheid. Social Perception and Interpersonal Behavior: On the Self-Fulfilling Nature of Social Stereotypes. Journal of Personality, and Social Psychology 35 (1977), pp. 656666.

72

R. Rosenthal, and L. Jacobson. Pygmalion in the Classroom (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968).

73

E. Walster, V. Aronson, D. Abrahams, and L. Rottmann. Importance of Physical Attractiveness in Dating Behavior. Journal of Personality, and Social Psychology 4 (1966), pp. 508516.

74

E. Hatfield, and S. Sprecher. Mirror, Mirror The Importance of Looks in Everyday Life (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986).

75

R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Executive Control in Reading Comprehension. : B. Britton, and S. Glynn. Executive Control Processes in Reading (Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1987), pp. 121.

76

G. Labouvie-Vief. Beyond Formal Operations: Uses and Limits of Pure Logic in Life Span Development. Human Development 23 (1980), pp. 141161. G. Labouvie-Vief. Wisdom as Integrated Thought: Historical and Developmental Perspectives. : R. Sternberg. Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins, and Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 5283. J. Pascual-Leone. Attentional, Dialectic, and Mental Effort. : M. Commons, F. Richards, and C. Armon. Beyond Forrnal Operattons (New York: Plenum, 1984). J. Pascual-Leone. An Essay on Wisdom: Toward Organismic Processes That Make It Possible. : R. Sternberg. Wisdom, pp. 244278. K. Riegel. Dialectical Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development. Human Development 16 (1973), pp. 346370.

77

A. Newell, and H. Simon. Human Problem Solving (Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972).

78

T. Gladwin. East Is a Big Bird: Navigation and Logic on Puluwat Atoll (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970).

79

C. Levi-Strauss. The Savage Mind (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966).

80

I. Yanis, and D. Meyers. Activation and Metacognition of Inaccessible Stored Information: Potential Bases of Incubation Effects in Problem Solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13 (1987), pp. 187205.

81

B. Anderson. Cognitive Psychology (New York: Academic Press, 1975).

82

C. Kaplan, and J. Davidson. Incubation Effects in Problem Solving ( , 1989).

83

R. Luce, and H. Raifa. Games and Decisions (New York: Wiley, 1957).

84

H. Simon. Administrative Behavior (Totowa, N.J.: Littlefields, Adams, 1957).

85

D. Kahneman, and A. Tversky. Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness. Cognitive Psychology 3 (1972), pp. 430454.

86

L. Krantz. What the Odds Are: A-to-Z Odds on Everything You Hoped or Feared Could Happen (New York: Harper Perennial, 1992).

87

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88

A. Tversky, and D. Kahneman. Availability A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability. Cognitive Psycholo-gy 5 (1973), pp. 207232.

89

B. Fisdlhoff, P. Slovic, and S. Lichtenstein. Knowing with Certainty. The Appropriateness of Extreme Confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Perforrnance 3 (1977), pp. 552564.

90

B. Fischhoff. Judgment and Decision Making. : R. Sternberg, and E. Smith. The Psychology of Human Thought (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 153187.

91

R. Sternberg, and T. Lubart. Defying the Crowd: Cultivating Creativity in a Gulture of Conformity (New York: Free Press, 1995).

92

R. Sternberg, and T. Lubart. Defying the Crowd: Cultivating Creativity in a Gulture of Conformity (New York: Free Press, 1995).

93

J. Garcia, and R. Koelling. The Relation of Cue to Consequence in Avoidance Learning. Psychonomic Science 4 (1966), pp. 123124.

94

R. Sternberg. Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985). R. Sternberg. The Nature of Creativity: Contemporary Psychological Perspectives (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). R. Sternberg, and T. Lubart. Defying the Crowd.

95

R. Schank. The Creative Attitude (New York: Macmillan, 1988).

96

T. Amabile. The Social Psychology of Creativity (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983)

97

R. Sternberg, and T. Lubart. Defying the Crowd

98

T. Amabile. The Social Psychology of Creativity.

99

B. Hennessey, and T. Amabile. The Conditions of Creativity. : R. Sternberg. The Nature of Creativity, pp. 1138.

100

T. Lubart, and R. Sternberg. An Investment Approach to Creativity: Theory and Data. : S. Smith, T. Ward, and R. Finke. The Creative Cognition Approach (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995), pp. 269302.

101

R. Sternberg. In Search of the Human Mind (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995). R. Sternberg, and W. Williams. Parenting Toward Cognitive Competence. : M. Bornstein. Handbook of Parenting, vol. 4 (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1995), pp. 259275.

102

R. Sternberg, and T. Lubart. Defying the Crowd.

103

N. Kogan, and M. Wallach. Risk Taking: A Study in Cognition and Personality (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964).

104

D. Jackson, L. Hourany, and N. Vidmar. A Four-Dimensional Interpretation of Risk Taking. Journal of Personality 40 (1972), pp. 483501.

105

T. Amabile. The Social Psychology of Creativity.

106

H. Gruber. The Self-Construction of the Extraordinary. : R. Sternberg, and J. Davidson. Conceptions of Giftedness (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 247263.

107

H. Stevenson, and J. Stigler. The Learning Gap (New York: Summit, 1992).

108

G. Plimpton. Poets at Work (New York: Viking Penguin, 1989), pp. 8.

109

F. Holmes. Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life: An Exploration of Scientific Creativity (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985).

110

P. Frensch, and R. Sternberg. Expertise and Intelligent Thinking: When Is It Worse to Know Better?. : R. Sternberg. Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, vol. 5 (Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1989), pp.157158.

111

M. Csikszentmihalyi. Society, Culture, and Person: A Systems View of Creativity. : R. Sternberg. The Nature of Creativity (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 325339.

112

T. Amabile. The Social Psychology of Creativity.

113

R. Sternberg. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Creativity, and Wisdom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (1985), pp. 607627.

114

D. McClelland. Testing for Competence Rather than for Intelligence. American Psychologist 28 (1973), pp. 114.

115

G. Barrett, and R. Depinet. A Reconsideration of Testing for Competence Rather than for Intelligence. American Psychologist 46 (1991), pp. 10121024.

116

L. Gottfredson. Societal Consequences of the g Factor. Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (1986), pp. 379410. J. Hawk. Real World Implications of g. Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (1986), pp. 411414. F. Schmidt, and J. Hunter. Employment Testing: Old Theories and New Research Findings. American Psychologist 36 (1981), pp. 11281137.

117

A. Wigdor, and W. Garner. Ability Testing: Uses, Consequences, and Controversies (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1982).

118

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119

J. Hunter, and R. Hunter. Validity and Utility of Alternative Predictors of Job Performance. Psychological Bulletin 96 (1984), pp. 7298. Schmidt, and Hunter, Employment Testing.

120

R. Herrnstein, and C. Murray. The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994).

121

R. Herrnstein, and C. Murray. The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994).

122

C. Schooler. Psychological Effects of Complex Environments During the Life Span: A Review and Theory. : C. Schooler, and K. Warner Schaie. Cognitive Functioning and Social Structure over the Life Course (Norwood, N. J.: Ablex, 1987), pp. 2449.

123

U. Neisser. General, Academic, and Artificial Intelligence. : L. Resnick. Human Intelligence: Perspectives on Its Theory and Measurement (Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976), pp. 17989.

124

S. Wllliams, N. Denney, and M. Schadler. Elderly Adults Perception of Their Own Cognitive Development During the Adult Years. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 16 (1983), pp. 147158.

125

J. Horn, and R. Cattell. Refinement and Test of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology 57 (1966), pp. 253270.

126

J. Carroll. Human Cognitive Abilities (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

127

R. Dixon, and P. Baltes. Toward Life-Span Research on the Functions and Pragmatics of Intelligence. : R. Sternberg, and R. Wagner. Practical Intelligence: Nature and Origins of Competence in the Everyday World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 203235.

128

N. Denney, and A. Palmer. Adult Age Differences on Traditional and Practical Problem-Solving Measures. Journal of Gerontology 36 (1981), pp. 323328.

129

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130

S. Cornelius, and A. Caspi. Everyday Problem Solving in Adulthood and Old Age. Psychology and Aging 2 (1987), pp. 144153.

131

P. Baltes, and M. Baltes. Psychological Perspectives on Successful Aging: A Model of Selective Optimization with Compensation. : P. Baltes, and M. Baltes. Successful Aging Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 134.

132

T. Salthouse. Effects of Age on Skill in Typing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113 (1984), pp. 345371.

133

S. Scribner. Studying Working Intelligence. : B. Rogoff, and J. Lave. Everyday Cognition: Its Development in Social Context (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984), pp. 940. S. Scribner. Thinking in Action: Some Characteristics of Practical Thought. : R. Sternberg, and R.Wagner. Practical Intelligence, pp. 1330.

134

S. Ceci, and J. Liker. Academic and Nonacade-mic Intelligence: An Experirnental Separation. : R. Sternberg, and R. Wagner. Practical Intelligence, pp. 119142. S. Ceci, and J. Liker. Stalking the IQ-Expertise Relation: When the Critics Go Fishing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117 (1988), pp. 96100.

135

J. Lave, M. Murtaugh, and O. de la Roche. The Dialectic of Arithmetic in Grocery Shopping. : Rogoff, and Lave. Everyday Cognition, pp. 6794.

136

J. Lave, M. Murtaugh, and O. de la Roche. The Dialectic of Arithmetic in Grocery Shopping. : Rogoff, and Lave. Everyday Cognition, pp. 6794.

137

T. Carraher, D. Carraher, and A. Schliemann. Mathematics in the Streets and in Schools. Brituh Journal of Developmental Psychology 3 (1985), pp. 2129.

138

D. Dorner, and H. Kreuzig. Problemlosefahigkeit und Intelligenz. Psychologische Rundschaus 34 (1983), pp. 185192. D. Dorner, H. Kreuzig, F. Reither, and T. Staudel. Lohhausen: Vom Umgang mit Unbestimmtheir und Komplexitat (Bern: Huber, 1983).

139

R. Sternberg. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Creativity, and Wisdom. R. Sternberg, and D. Caruso. Practical Modes of Knowing. : E. Eisner. Learning the Ways of Knowing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), pp. 133158. R. Wagner. Tacit Knowledge in Everyday Intelligent Behaviour. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (1987), pp. 12361247. R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Tacit Knowledge and Intelligence in the Everyday World. : R. Sternberg, and R. Wagner. Practical Intelligence, pp. 5183.

140

J. Horvath, G. Forsythe, P. Sweeney, J. McNally, J. Wattendorf, W. Wllliams, and R. Sternberg. Tacit Knowledge and Military Leadership: Evidence from Officer Interviews. ARI Technical Report (Alexandria, Va.: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1994). R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, W. Williams, and J. Horvath. Testing Common Sense. American Psychologist 50, . 11 (1995), pp. 912927.

141

R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, and L.Okagaki. Practical Intelligence. R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, W. Williams, and J. Horvath. Testing Common Sense.

142

R. Wagner. Tacit Knowledge in Everyday Intelligent Behavior. R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits: The Role of Tacit Knowledge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (1985), pp. 436458.

143

W. Williams, and R. Sternberg. Success Acts for Managers (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Brace, ).

144

Wigdor and Garner, Ability Testing.

145

R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits.

146

W. Williams, and R. Sternberg. Success Acts for Managers.

147

A. Jensen. Test Validity: g Versus Tacit Knowledge. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1 (1993), pp. 910. M. Ree, and A. Earles. g Is to Psychology What Carbon Is to Chemistry: A Reply to Sternberg and Wagner, McClelland, and Calfee. Current Directions in Psychological Scien-ce 1 (1993), pp. 1112. F. Schmidt, and J. Hunter. Tacit Knowledge, Practical Intelligence, General Mental Ability, and Job Knowledge. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1 (1993), pp. 89.

148

R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits. R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Street Smarts. : K. Clark, and M. Clark. Measures of Leadership (West Orange, 1: Leadership Library of America, 1990), pp. 493504.

149

A. Eddy. The Relationship Between the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Managers and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (, St. Marys University, San Antonio, Texas, 1988).

150

R. Wagner. Tacit Knowledge in Everyday Intelligent Behavior. R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits.

151

R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, and L. Okagaki. Practical Intelligence.

152

R. Sternberg, R. Wagner, and L. Okagaki. Practical Intelligence.

153

R. Sternberg, L. Okagaki, and A. Jackson, Practical Intelligence for Success in School. Educational Leadership 48 (1990), pp. 3539. H. Gardner, M. Krechevsky, R. Sternberg, and L. Okagaki. Intelligence in Context: Enhancing Students Practical Intelligence for School. : K. McGilly. Classroom Lessons: Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice (Cambridge, Mass.: Bradford Books, 1994), pp. 105127.

154

W. Williams, T. Blythe, N. White, R. Sternberg, and H. Gardner. Practical Intelligence for School (New York: HarperCollins, 1996).

155

M. Lepper, D. Greene, and R. Nisbett. Undermining Childrens Intrinsic Interests with Extnnsic Rewards: A Test of the Overjustification Hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28 (1973), pp. 129137.

156

H. Gruber. The Self-Construction of the Extraordinary. : R. Sternberg, and J. Davidson, Conceptions of Giftedness (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 247263.

157

L. Thurstone. The Nature of Intelligence (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1924).

158

D. Stenhouse. The Evolution of Intelligence: A General Theory and Some of Its Implications (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).

159

E. Guthrie. The Psychology of Learning (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1935).

160

F. Fiedler, and T. Link. Leader Intelligence, Interpersonal Stress, and Task Performance. : R. Sternberg, and R. Wagner. Mind in Context: Interactonist Perspectives on Human Intelligence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 152167.

161

R. Sternberg. The Triangle of Love (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

162

D. McClelland. Human Motivation (New York: Scott, Foresman, 1985).

163

R. Wagner, and R. Sternberg. Practical Intelligence in Real-World Pursuits: The Role of Tacit Knowledge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (1985), pp. 436458.

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