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1

C. Ray, How is paternity determined and with what degree of accuracy?, New York Times, 9 December 1986, p. B4.

2

C. Sutton, How Did They Do That?, Quill, New York, 1985, pp. 9194.

3

E. Main, D. Moore, B. Farrell, L. Schimmel, R. Altman, C. Abrahams, M. Bliss, L. Polivv and J. Sterling, Is there a useful cesarean birth measure? Assessment of the nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean birth rate as a tool for obstetric quality improvement, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2006, vol. 194, no. 6, pp. 16441651.

4

W. Burket, Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996.

5

A. Mohl, Growing up male: Is violence, crime and war endemic to the male gender?, Journal of Psychohistory, 2006, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 270289.

6

S. Juan, Defi ning race, National Post, 10 April 2006, p. 1.

7

D. Jones, The Neanderthal code?, New Scientist, 11 November 2006, pp. 4447.

8

S. Guynup, Resurrecting extinct animals?, Popular Science, February 2006, pp. 5455.

9

S. Juan, Bringing back the extinct, National Post, 1 May 2006, p. 1.

10

S. Juan, What is the diff erence between a chromosome and a gene?, The Register, 19 May 2006.

11

S. Juan, What are chromosome abnormalities and how often do they occur?, The Register, 19 May 2006.

12

Dr Michael De Bellis is from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre.

13

L. Thomas and M. De Bellis, Pituitary volumes in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder, Biological Psychiatry, 2004, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 752758.

14

Dr Martin Teicher is from the Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program at McLean Hospital, Harvard University.

15

M. Teicher, N. Dumont, Y. Ito, C. Vaituzis, J. Giedd and S. Andersen, Childhood neglect is associated with reduced corpus callosum area, Biological Psychiatry, 2004, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 8085.

16

Dr Margot Sunderland is the Director of Education and Training at the Centre for Child Mental Health in London.

17

S. Juan, Can leaving a baby to cry it out cause brain damage?, The Register, 14 July 2006.

18

S. Juan, Can leaving my baby to cry it out cause brain damage?, National Post, 30 October 2006, p. 1.

19

Anni Gethin is a health social scientist in Sydney and Beth Macgregor is a psychologist in Sydney.

20

A. Gethin and B. Macgregor, Helping Your Baby to Sleep, Finch Publishing, Sydney, 2007, p. 51.

21

Dr Jeff ry Simpson is from the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

22

J. Simpson, W. Collins, S. Tran and K. Haydon, Attachment and the experience and expression of emotions in romantic relationships: A developmental perspective, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2007, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 355367.

23

C. Ray, What is amniotic fl uid?, New York Times, 12 January 1999, p. D3.

24

S. Juan, What is amniotic fl uid?, The Register, 18 August 2006.

25

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

26

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

27

Drs Anthony DeCasper and Melanie Spence are from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

28

A. DeCasper and M. Spence, Prenatal maternal speech infl uences newborns perception of speech sounds, Infant Behaviour and Development, 1986, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 133250.

29

D. Chamberlain, The Mind of Your Newborn Baby, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, 1998, pp. 3738.

30

S. Juan, Why cant I remember my own birth?, The Register, 8 September 2006.

31

Drs K.Y. Loh and N. Sivalingam are from the International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

32

K. Loh and N. Sivalingam, Understanding hyperemesis gravidarum, Medical Journal of Malaysia, 2005, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 394399.

33

Drs J.D. Quinla and D.A. Hill are from the naval hospital in Jacksonville, Florida.

34

J. Quinla and D. Hill, Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, American Family Physician, 2003, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 121128.

35

Drs Gillian Pepper and S. Craig Roberts are from the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Liverpool.

36

G. Pepper and S. Roberts, Rates of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and dietary characteristics across populations, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 2006, vol. 273 (1601), pp. 26752679.

37

Dr C. Paquin is a biologist at the University of Laval in Quebec, Canada, and Dr J. Adams is a biologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

38

C. Paquin and J. Adams, Frequency of fi xation of adaptive mutations is higher in evolving diploid than haploid yeast populations, Nature, 1983, vol. 302 (5908), pp. 495500.

39

C. Paquin and J. Adams, Relative fi tness can decrease in evolving asexual populations of S. cerevisiae, Nature, 1983, vol. 306 (5941), pp. 368370.

40

S. Juan, Why does natural selection take so long to get results?, The Register, 15 September 2006.

41

Dr Ralph Catalano is a professor of public health at the University of California at Berkeley.

42

R. Catalano, Sex ratios in the two Germanies: A test of the economic stress hypothesis, Human Reproduction, 2003, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 19721975.

43

R. Catalano, T. Bruckner, A. Marks and B. Eskenazi, Exogenous shocks to the human sex ratio: The case of September 11, 2001 in New York City, Human Reproduction, 2006, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 31273131, Epub 26 August 2006.

44

R. Catalano and T. Bruckner, Male lifespan and the secondary sex ratio, American Journal of Human Reproduction, 2006, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 783790, Epub 12 October 2006.

45

Fewer boys are born during hard times, New Scientist, 30 August 2006, p. 20.

46

S. Juan, Is it true that fewer boy babies are born in hard times?, The Register, 3 November 2006.

47

S. Juan, What is Cro-Magnon man?, The Register, 10 November 2006.

48

Dr Jimmy Or is from the Takanishi Laboratory Humanoid Robotics Institute of Waseda University in Tokyo.

49

J. Or, A control system for a fl exible spine belly-dancing humanoid, Artifi cial Life, 2006, vol. 12, pp. 6387.

50

S. Juan, Meet the belly dancing robot, National Post, 8 January 2007, pp. 12.

51

Drs M. Hirose and K. Ogawa are from Honda Research and Development Company Ltd of the Wako Research Centre in Saitama, Japan.

52

M. Hirose and K. Ogawa, Honda humanoid robots development, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2007, vol. 365 (1850), pp. 1119.

53

Drs A. Arita, K. Hiraki, T. Kanda and H. Ishiguro are from the Department of General Systems Studies at the University of Tokyo.

54

A. Arita et al., Can we talk to robots? Ten-month-old infants expected interactive humanoid robots to be talked to by persons, Cognition, 2005, vol. 95, vol. 3, pp. 849857.

55

Hiroshi Ishiguro is from the ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, near Kyoto, Japan.

56

B. Schaub, My android twin, New Scientist, 14 October 2006, pp. 4246.

57

C. Biever, A good robot has personality but not looks, New Scientist, 22 July 2006, p. 32.

58

Drs K. Nishiwaki, J. Kuff ner, S. Kagami, M. Inaba and H. Inoue are from the Digital Human Research Centre of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology of Tokyo.

59

K. Nishiwaki et al., The experimental humanoid robot H7: A research platform for autonomous behaviour, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2007, vol. 365 (1850), pp. 79107.

60

Dr Alain Cardon is from the Laboratory of Information of Paris.

61

A. Cardon, Artifi cial consciousness, artifi cial emotions, and autonomous robots, Cognitive Processes, 2006, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 245267.

62

R. Kurzweil, Robots R Us, Popular Science, September 2006, pp. 5271.

63

S. Juan, Will robots ever become just like humans?, The Register, 23 December 2006.

64

S. Juan, How old is my body if the cells keep renewing themselves?, The Register, 17 February 2007.

65

Dr Michael Onken is from the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at Washington University in St Louis.

66

Personal communication, 2 February 2006.

67

Dr Barbara Sakakian is from the Department of Psychiatry at the School of Clinical Medicine of Cambridge University.

68

Personal communication, 7 February 2006.

69

Dr Aubrey de Grey is from the Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Aging at Cambridge University.

70

G. Lawton, The incredibles, New Scientist, 15 May 2006, pp. 3238.

71

S. Juan, Is the human skull made up of one bone or two?, The Register, 20 January 2007.

72

Drs A. Czaplinski, A. Steck and P. Fuhr are from the Neurology Clinic of the University of Bazylei in Szwajacaria, Poland.

73

A. Czaplinski, A. Steck and P. Fuhr, Tic syndrome, Neurologia neurochirurgia polska, 2002, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 493504.

74

Dr Alumit Ishai is from the Institute of Neuroradiology at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

75

A. Ishai, Sex, beauty and the orbitofrontal cortex, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2007, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 181185.

76

Dr David Perrett is a cognitive psychologist at the University of St Andrews in Scotland.

77

D. Perrett, K. Lee, I. Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. Yosikawa, D. Burt, S. Henzi, D. Castles and S. Akamatsu, Eff ects of sexual dimorphism on facial expression, Nature, 1998, vol. 394 (6696), pp. 884887.

78

S.Juan, Why is it that we find some faces so attractive and not others?, National Post, 19 April 2007, pp. 12.

79

A. Aron, H. Fisher, D. Mashek, G. Strong, H. Li and L. Brown, Reward, motivation and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love, Neurophysiology, 2005, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 327337.

80

H. Fisher, A. Aron and L. Brown, Romantic love: A mammalian brain system for mate choice, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2006, vol. 361 (1476), pp. 21732186.

81

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

82

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

83

Drs J.R. Meloy and H. Fisher are from the Department of Psychiatry of the University of California at San Diego.

84

J. Meloy and H. Fisher, Some thoughts on the neurobiology of stalking, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1995, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 14721480.

85

Dr N.C. Heglund is from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium.

86

J. Varasdi, Myth Information: More than 590 Popular Misconceptions, Fallacies and Misbeliefs Explained, Ballantine, New York, 1996, p. 122

87

J. Rains and F. Taylor, Chronic Daily Headache: An Overview, American Council for Headache Education, Mount Royal, New Jersey, 2006.

88

Mayo Clinic, Thunderclap Headaches, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education, Rochester, Minnesota, 24 May 2005.

89

S. Juan, Aching heads, National Post, 10 April 2006, p. 1.

90

Mayo Clinic, Ice Cream Headaches, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education, Rochester, Minnesota, 24 May 2006.

91

S.Juan, What is a brain freeze?, The Register, 16June 2006.

92

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Health Information Library: MSG Headaches, Johns Hopkins Health Information Service, Baltimore, Maryland, 24 May 2006.

93

S.Juan, What is a Chinese restaurant headache?, The Register, 16 June 2006.

94

S. Juan, Why doesnt a hangover occur the night before?, The Register, 28 July 2006.

95

S. Juan, Your head will hurt tomorrow, National Post, 13 November 2006, p. 1.

96

H. Moore, Avoiding post-lumbar puncture headaches, Pulmonary Reviews, 2000, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 17.

97

Dr R. Gaiser is from the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Pennsylvania.

98

R. Gaiser, Postdural puncture headache, Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 2006, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 249253.

99

Dr C.L. Wu is from the Department of Anesthesiology at Johns Hopkins University.

100

C. Wu, A. Rowlingson, S. Cohen, R. Michaels, G. Courpas, E.Joe and S. Liu, Gender and postdural puncture headache, Anesthesiology, 2006, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 613618.

101

S. Juan, What is a post-lumbar headache?, The Register, 27 October 2006.

102

Dr Andrew Lloyd is an infectious disease physician in Sydney, Australia.

103

Personal communication, 29 August 2006.

104

Dr J.D. Grabenstein is from the US Offi ce of the Surgeon General.

105

J. Grabenstein, P. Pitman, J. Greenwood and R. Engler, Immunization to protect the US Armed Forces: Heritage, current practice, and prospects, Epidemiologic Reviews, 2006, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 326.

106

Dr A. Prysyazhnyuk is from the Research Centre for Radiation Medicine of AMS of the Ukraine in Kiev.

107

A. Prysyazhnyuk, V. Gristchenko, Z. Fedorenko, L. Gulak, M. Fuzik, K. Slipenyuk and M. Tirmarche, Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident: Solid cancer incidence in various groups of the Ukrainian population, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 2007, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 4351.

108

Drs R.A. Schwartz, C.A. Janusz and C.K. Janniger are from the University of Medicine and Dentistry at the New Jersey Medical School in Newark.

109

R.A. Schwartz et al., Seborrheic dermatitis: An overview, American Family Physician, 2006, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 125130.

110

Dr Brent Archinal is from the Astrogeology Team of the US Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona.

111

B. Archinal, How far can you see?, Astronomy, May 1997, p. 20.

112

J. Apt, Orbit, the astronauts view of home, National Geographic, November 1996, pp. 827.

113

D. Fisk and R. Brown, Chinese puzzle, New Scientist, 15 July 1995, p. 65.

114

S. Juan, How far can the naked eye see?, The Register, 1 December 2006.

115

S. Juan, Can the Great Wall be seen from the moon?, Epoch Times, 29 November 2006.

116

S. Juan, Can you really see the Great Wall of China from the Moon?, The Register, 1 December 2006.

117

Dr Samuel Salamon is from the Cataract Eye Centre of Cleveland, Ohio.

118

S. Juan, Why do babies blink less often than adults?, The Register, 30 June 2006.

119

D.M. Stein, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, E. Hertzmark, R. Noecker and J. Schuman are from the Department of Ophthalmology at the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh.

120

D. Stein et al., Effect of corneal drying on optical coherence tomography, Ophthalmology, 2006, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 98591.

121

Dr Stephen Miller is the Director of the Clinical Care Centre of the American Optometric Association in St Louis.

122

Personal communication, 23 August 2006.

123

Drs N.S. Logan, L. Davies, E. Mallen and B. Gilmartin are from the Human Myopia Research Centre at Aston University in Birmingham, UK.

124

N. Logan et al., Ametropia and ocular biometry in a UK university student population, Optometry and Vision Science, 2005, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 261266.

125

S. Juan, Why are so many humans near sighted?, The Register, 22 September 2006.

126

S. Juan, How does a cross-eyed persons view differ from others?, The Register, 6 October 2006.

127

Dr Michael Lawless of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney, Australia.

128

Personal communication, 26 August 2006.

129

Drs M.A. Bullimore, K. Reuter, L.Jones, G. Mitchell, J. Zoz and M. Rah are from the Ohio State University College of Optometry in Columbus.

130

M. Bullimore et al., The study of progression of adult nearsightedness (SPAN): Design and baseline characteristics, Optometry and Vision Science, 2006, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 594604.

131

Dr Armand Tanguay Jr is a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Southern California.

132

M. Stroh, We see the future better than 20/20, Popular Science, June 2005, p. 59.

133

S. Juan, Is an artificial eye close to reality?, The Register, 24 November 2006.

134

Blind person sees colour with touch only, Dominican Today (Santo Domingo), 17 November 2005, p. 1.

135

S. Juan, Can the blind feel colours, Epoch Times, 15 November 2006, p. 11.

136

D. Simons, Attentional capture and inattentional blindness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2000, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 147155.

137

Drs S.B. Most, B. School, E. Cliff ord and D. Simons are from the Department of Psychology at Harvard University.

138

S. Most et al., What you see is what you set: Sustained inattentional blindness and the capture of awareness, Psychological Review, 2005, vol. 112, pp. 21742.

139

Drs Mika Koivisto and Antti Revonsuo are from the Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Turku in Finland.

140

M. Koivisto and A. Revonsuo, The role of unattended distracters in sustained inattentional blindness, Psychological Research, 2008, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 3948, Epub 5 July 2006.

141

S.Juan, When is seeing not seeing?, The Register, 19 January 2006.

142

Dr Kenton McWilliams is from the School of Optometry at the University of Missouri in St Louis.

143

Personal communication, 18 May 2006.

144

R. Williams and W. Madil, Goggle eyed, New Scientist, 17 June 2000, p. 65.

145

Dr Anna Gislen is from Lund University in Sweden.

146

A. Gislen and L. Gislen, On the optical theory of underwater vision in humans, Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 2004, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 20612064.

147

A. Gislen, E. Warrant, M. Dacke and R. Kroeger, Visual training improves underwater vision in children, Vision, 2006, vol. 46, no. 20, pp. 34433450.

148

J. Travis, The eyes have it, Science News, 17 May 2003, p. 308.

149

E. Aserinsky and N. Kleitman, Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep, Science, 1953, vol. 118 (3062), pp. 273274.

150

Dr David Maurice is from Columbia University.

151

D. Maurice, The Von Sallmann lecture 1996: An ophthalmological explanation of REM sleep, Experimental Eye Research, 1996, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 139145.

152

Drs F. Hoff mann and G. Curio are from the Free University of Berlin.

153

F. Hoff mann and G. Curio, REM sleep and recurrent corneal erosion hypothesis, Klinische Monatsblatterfur Augenheilkunde, 2003, vol. 220, nos. 12, pp. 5153.

154

Rolling eyes gather more oxygen, New Scientist, 28 February 1998, p. 23.

155

A. Mijolla, international Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, eNotes, Seattle, 26 May 2006.

156

G. Cook, How do we take advantage of infl ection points?, Cook & Company Commentary, Winter 2003, p. 2.

157

S. Juan, Whats this scotomisation in The Da Vinci Code?, The Register, 9 June 2006.

158

S. Juan, Why seeing is not always believing, National Post, 28 September 2006, pp. 12.

159

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

160

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

161

University of California, San Diego Medical Centre, Types of Nasal Dysfunction, University of California, San Diego, 12 August 2006.

162

S. Juan, Are there people with no sense of smell?, The Register, 16 September 2006.

163

S. Juan, Is there an evolutionary advantage in snoring?, The Register, 14 July 2006.

164

S. Juan, What evolutionary advantage is there in making a sound while snoring?, National Post, 30 October 2006, pp. 12

165

Drs J. A. Gottfried and R.J. Dolan are from the Functional Imaging Laboratory of the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience in London.

166

J. Gottfried and R. Dolan, The nose smells what the eye sees: Crossmodal visual facilitation of human olfactory perception, Neuron, 2003, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375386.

167

Drs R.A. Osterbauer, P. Matthews, M. Jenkinson, C. Beckmann, P. Hansen and G. Calvert, are from the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at Oxford University.

168

R. Osterbauer et al., Colour of scents: Chromatic stimuli modulate odour responses in the human brain, Journal of Neurophysiology, 2005, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 34343441.

169

Drs S. Lombion-Pouthier, P. Vandel, S. Nezelof, E. Haffen and J. Millot are from the Laboratoire de Neurosciences at the Universite de Franche-Comte in Cedex, France.

170

S. Lombion-Pouthier et al., Odor perception in patients with mood disorders, Journal of Aff ective Disorders, 2006, vol. 90, nos. 23, pp. 187191.

171

Drs K. Sugiyama, Y. Hasegawa, N. Sugiyama, M. Suzuki, N. Watanabe and S. Murakami are from the Nagoya City University Medical School.

172

K. Sugiyama et al., Smoking-induced olfactory dysfunction in chronic sinusitis and assessment of brief University of Pennsylvania Smell Identifi cation Test and T&T methods, American Journal of Rhinology, 2006, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 439444.

173

S.Juan, Who knows what there is to know about the nose?, The Register, 17 November 2006.

174

Dr Betty Repacholi is from the Department of Psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle.

175

T. Case, B. Repacholi and R. Stevenson, My baby doesnt smell as bad as yours: The plasticity of disgust, Evolution and Human Behaviour, 2006, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 357365.

176

Drs V. Curtis, R. Aunger and T. Rabie are from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

177

V. Curtis et al., Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease, Proceedings/Biological Sciences. The Royal Society, 2004, vol. 271, suppl. 4, pp. S131133.

178

V. Iannelli, Do Babies Have Sinuses? Your Guide to Pediatrics, About Inc., New York, 4 July 2006.

179

S. Juan, Why do babies always seem to have a runny nose?, The Register, 28 July 2006.

180

S.Juan, Why do babies often have a runny nose?, National Post, 13 November 2006, p. 1.

181

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

182

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

183

D. Feldman, What are Hyenas Laughing at, Anyway? HarperCollins, New York, 1996, p. 61.

184

Dr Noam Sobel is now a professor of psychology at the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute of the University of California at Berkeley.

185

M. Barraud, Two sides of it, New Scientist, 6 November 1999, p. 6.

186

L. Watson, Jacobsons Organ and the Remarkable Nature of Smell, WW. Norton, New York, 2000.

187

L. Lowndes, How to Make Anyone Fall in Love With You, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997, p. 293.

188

S. Juan, Vomeronasal organ: Dead or alive?, The Register, 9 May 2006.

189

Drs D.M. Bautista, P. Movahed, A. Hinman, H. Axelsson, O. Sterner, E. Hogestatt, D. Julius, S. Jordt and P. Zygmunt are from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of California in San Francisco.

190

D. Bautista et al., Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 2005, vol. 102, no. 34, pp. 1224812252.

191

T. Mendham, Garlic Breath, Garlic Central, Edinburgh, 9 November 2006.

192

S. Juan, Who knows what there is to know about the nose?, The Register, 17 November 2006.

193

Dr Hans Wohlmuth is from the School of Natural and Complementary Medicine at Southern Cross University in Australia.

194

Personal communication, 9 November 2006.

195

Dr P. Josling is from the Garlic Centre in Battle, East Sussex, UK.

196

P. Josling, Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: A double-blind, placebo-controlled survey, Advances in Therapy, 2001, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 189193.

197

S. Juan, Does garlic ward off the common cold?, The Register, 24 November 2006.

198

Drs L. Pelz and B. Stein are from the Medical Branch of the University of Rostock in Germany.

199

L. Pelz and B. Stein, Clinical assessment of ear size in children and adolescents, Padiatrie und Grenzgebiete, 1990, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 229235.

200

Dr James Heathcote is a general practitioner from Kent in the UK.

201

J. Heathcote, Why do old men have big ears?, British Medical Journal, 1995, vol. 311, p. 1668.

202

Dr Yashhiro Asai is a physician at the Futanazu Clinic in Misaki in Japan.

203

Y. Asai, M. Yoshimura, N. Nago and T. Yamada, Correlation of ear length with age in Japan, British Medical Journal, 1996, vol. 312, p. 582.

204

Dr V.F. Ferrario, C. Sforza, V. Ciusa, G. Serrao and G. Tartaglia are from the Functional Anatomy Research Centre at the University of Milan in Italy.

205

V. Ferrario et al., Morphometry of the normal human ear: A cross-sectional study from adolescence to midadulthood, Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology, 1999, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 226233.

206

M. Woods, As we age and shrink, our ears grow on, Post Gazette (Pittsburgh), 4 November 2003, pp. 12.

207

S. Juan, Do our ears grow longer with age?, The Register, 26 May 2006.

208

S. Juan, Yes, your ears are growing, National Post, 26 June 2006, pp. 12.

209

Dr Steven Mithen is a professor of early prehistory at the University of Reading in the UK.

210

S. Mithen, The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, 2005, pp. 172173.

211

S. Mithen, Moved by the music, New Scientist, 16 July 2005, pp. 467.

212

C. Sutton, How Did They Do That? Quill, New York, 1985, pp. 261264.

213

Dr P.D. Shearer is from the St Jude Childrens Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.

214

P. Shearer, The deafness of Beethoven: An audiologic and medical overview, American Journal of Otology, 1990, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 370374.

215

Drs C.S. Karmody and E.S. Bachor are from the Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston.

216

C. Karmody and E. Bachor, The deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven: An immunopathy, Otology and Neurotology, 2005, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 809814.

217

Dr R.H. Ratnasuriya is a psychologist at the Bethlem Royal and Maudsley Hospital in London.

218

R. Ratnasuriya, Joan of Arc, creative psychopath: Is there another explanation?, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1986, vol. 79, pp. 234235.

219

Dr D.A. Moore is the medical services director of the Scottish and Newcastle Breweries in Edinburgh, Scotland.

220

D. Moore, Response to Joan of Arc, creative psychopath: Is there another explanation? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1986, vol. 79, p. 560.

221

Dr Rudolph Bell is a historian at Rutgers University in Chicago.

222

R. Bell, Holy Anorexia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1985.

223

Drs E. Foote-Smith and L. Bayne are from the Department of Neurology at the University of California in San Francisco.

224

E. Foote-Smith and L. Bayne, Joan of Arc, Epilepsia, 1991, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 810815.

225

Dr Maggie Phillips is a psychologist in Oakland, California.

226

M. Phillips, Joan of Arc meets Mary Poppins: Maternal renurturing approaches with male patients in Ego-State Therapy, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 2004, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 312.

227

S. Juan, Joan of Arcs secret, National Post, 24 April 2006, pp. 12.

228

D. Fucci, L. Petrosino, B. Hallowell, L. Andra and C. Wilcox, Magnitude estimation scaling of annoyance in response to rock music: Eff ects of sex and listeners preference, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1997, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 663670.

229

J. Kellaris and R. Kent, An exploratory investigation of responses elicited by music varying in tempo, tonality and texture, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1993, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 381401.

230

Dr John Manning is from the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Liverpool in the UK.

231

Reuters, Ears a way to show mens wretched moods, Daily Telegraph (Sydney), 24 July 1997, p. 26.

232

S.Juan, The Odd Body: Can you judge a person by their ears?, Epoch Times, 18 October 2006, p. 16.

233

S. Juan, Can you judge someones personality by the shape of their ears?, The Register, 27 October 2006.

234

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

235

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

236

Drs L.E. Cuevas and C.A. Hart are from the Department of Tropical Paediatrics at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine at the University of Liverpool, UK.

237

L. Cuevas and C. Hart, Chemoprophylaxis of bacterial meningitis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1993, vol. 31, suppl. B, pp. 7991.

238

Drs Rosemary Hallett, L.A. Haapanen and S.S. Teuber are from the School of Medicine at the University of California in Davis.

239

R. Hallett et al., Food allergies and kissing, New England Journal of Medicine, 2002, vol. 346, no. 23, pp. 18331834.

240

Dr H. Kimata is from the Department of Allergy at Satou Hospital in Osaka.

241

H. Kimata, Kissing selectively decreases allergen-specific IgE production in atopic patients, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2006, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 545547.

242

Drs K. Floyd, J. Boren, A. Hannawa, B. McEwan and A. Veksler are from the Department of Communication at Arizona State University.

243

K. Floyd et al., Kissing in marital and cohabiting relationships: Eff ects on blood lipids, stress, and relationship satisfaction, Western Journal of Communication, 2009, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 113133.

244

R. Gordon (ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th edn), Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dallas, 2005, p. 122.

245

Dr Michael Cole is a professor of psychology at the University of California in San Diego.

246

M. Cole and S. Cole, The Development of Children (4th edn), Worth Publishing, San Francisco, 2001.

247

S.Juan, Umm, The Register, 6 May 2006.

248

E. Tan, A. Ciger and T. Zileli, Whistling epilepsy: A case report, Clinical Electroencephalography, 1990, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 110111.

249

T. Murray, Dr Samuel Johnsons movement disorder, British Medical Journal, 1979, vol. 1 (6178), pp. 16101614.

250

S.Juan, Whats happened to whistling?, The Register, 2 June 2006.

251

S.Juan, Not just whistling Dixie, National Post, 25 July 2006.

252

S.Juan, How do I taste things?, The Register, 4 August 2006.

253

Drs T. Manrique, I. Moron, M. Ballesteros, R. Guerrero and M. Gallo are from the Institute of Neurosciences F. Oloriz of the Department of Experimental Psychology and Physiology of Behaviour at the University of Granada in Spain.

254

T. Manrique et al., Hippocampus, ageing and taste memories, Chemical Senses, 2007, vol. 32, no. l. pp. 111117.

255

C. Wysocki, Do people lose their senses of smell and taste as they age?, Scientifi c American, June 2003, p. 107.

256

J. Varasdi, Myth Information: More than 590 Popular Misconceptions, Fallacies and Misbeliefs Explained, Ballantine, New York, 1996, p. 234.

257

S. Juan, Is it possible to swallow while standing on your head?, The Register, 11 August 2006.

258

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

259

S. Juan, The Odd Body: Mysteries of Our Weird and Wonderful Bodies Explained, HarperCollinsAustralia, Sydney, 1995, p. 97.

260

S. Juan, Why are we not irritated by the volume of our own voice?, The Register, 22 September 2006.

261

Drs Robert Krauss, R. Freyberg and E. Morsella are from the Department of Psychology at Columbia University.

262

R. Krauss et al., Inferring speakers physical attributes from their voices, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2002, vol. 38, pp. 618625.

263

Drs Susan Hughes, M. Harrison and G. Gallop are from the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York in Albany.

264

S. Hughes et al., The sound of symmetry: Voice as a marker of developmental instability, Evolution and Human Behaviour, 2002, vol. 23, pp. 173178.

265

S. Hughes, F. Dispenza and G. Gallop, Ratings of voice attractiveness predict sexual behaviour and body configuration, Evolution and Human Behaviour, 2004, vol. 25, pp. 295304.

266

S. Juan, What can you learn from the sound of someones voice?, The Register, 6 October 2006.

267

Dr William Sharp is from the Department of Psychology at the University of Mississippi in Oxford.

268

W. Sharp, C. Sherman and A. Gross, Selective mutism and anxiety: A review of the current conceptualization of the disorder, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2006, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 568579.

269

S. Juan, What is selective mutism?, The Register, 9 December 2006.

270

S.Juan, Why do we open our mouths to yawn properly?, The Register, 13 January 2007.

271

Dr G. Hauser is from the Histological and Embryological Institute of the University of Wien in Germany.

272

G. Hauser, A. Daponte and M. Roberts, Palatal rugae, Journal of Anatomy, 1989, vol. 165, pp. 237249.

273

Dr Jonathan Kantor is from the Department of Dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Centre in Philadelphia.

274

J. Kantor, Medical Encyclopedia: Body Lice, US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 19 May 2005.

275

S. Juan, What lies without: Life on the human body, The Register, 2 June 2006.

276

Drs N. Agarwal, A. Kriplani, A. Gupta and N. Bhatia are from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi.

277

N. Agarwal et al., Management of gigantomastia complicating pregnancy. A case report, Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2002, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 871874.

278

S. Juan, Is it true that a womans breasts can grow enormously overnight?, The Register, 13 January 2006.

279

Drs J.M. Wu, A. Mamelak, R. Nussbaum and P. McElgunn are from the School of Medicine at the University of Sheffi eld.

280

J. Wu et al., Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of chromhidrosis, Dermatological Surgery, 2005, vol. 31, no. 8 (pt 1), pp. 963965.

281

Dr Stephen Amon is head of the Infant Botulism Prevention Program at the California Department of Health Sciences in Sacramento.

282

Dr A. Boer is a dermatologist in Hamburg, Germany.

283

A. Boer, Patterns histopathologic of Fox-Fordyce disease, American Journal of Dermatopathology, 2004, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 482492.

284

M. Sims, Adams Navel: A Natural and Cultural History of the Human Body, Allen Lane, London, 2003, pp. 13, 28, 44.

285

S. Juan, Why dont humans moult?, The Register, 26 June 2006.

286

M. Rogers, Theyve got a hide!, Medical Observer, (Sydney) 8 November 2002, p. 56.

287

S. Juan, Was human skin really used in book binding?, The Register, 4 August 2006.

288

Dr Peter Cave is a philosopher at the Open University, City University of London.

289

P. Cave, Birthday special: John Stuart Mill, Philosophy Now (London), May-June 2006, pp. 2629.

290

S. Juan, Making rash judgment on philosophers death, National Post, 7 November 2006, pp. 12.

291

Dr Sarah-Jayne Blakemore is from the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at the University College in London.

292

S. Blakemore, Deluding the motor system, Consciousness and Cognition, 2003, vol. 12, issue 4, pp. 647655.

293

Dr D.S. Bennett is from the MCP Hahnemann University in Philadelphia.

294

D. Bennett, M. Bendersky and M. Lewis, Facial expressivity at 4 months: A context by expression analysis, Infancy, 2002, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 97113.

295

Dr M. Blagrove is from the Department of Psychology at the University of Wales in Swansea.

296

M. Blagrove, S. Blakemore and B. Thayer, The ability to self-tickle following Rapid Eye Movement sleep dreaming, Consciousness and Cognition, 2006, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 285294.

297

S. Juan, What is the purpose of tickling?, The Register, 1 September 2006.

298

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, p. 218.

299

S. Juan, Why do your hands turn white when you wash the dishes?, The Register, 1 September 2006.

300

Dr R. James Swanson is from the Faculty of Biological Sciences at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

301

Personal communication, 2 February 2006.

302

S. Juan, Why do you sometimes shiver when you wee?, The Register, 1 September 2006.

303

Dr Randolph Morgan is director of the Insectarium at the Cincinnati Zoo in Ohio.

304

D. Feldman, What are Hyenas Laughing at, Anyway? G.P. Putnam, New York, 1995, p. 179.

305

New Jersey Mosquito Control Association, FAQs on Mosquitoes, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 24 October 2006.

306

Dr James Logan is from the Rothamsted Research Institute in Herfordshire, UK, and Professor Jenny Mordue is from the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

307

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Biting back at fl ies, BBSRC Business (London), January 2005, pp. 1415.

308

C. Ray, Mosquitoes and genes, New York Times, 16 September 2003, p. D4.

309

New Jersey Mosquito Control Association, FAQs on Mosquitoes, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 24 October 2006.

310

Dr Leslie Saul-Gershenz is the director of Entomology at the San Francisco Zoological Society.

311

D. Feldman, What are Hyenas Laughing at, Anyway? p. 178.

312

J. Walters and A. ODonoghue, Mozzie attack, New Scientist, 12 April 1997, p. 65.

313

J. Richfi eld and Y. Van Bergen, Biting back, New Scientist, 29 April 2006, p. 73.

314

S. Juan, Why are some people more attractive to mosquitoes?, The Register, 10 November 2006.

315

Dr Steven Schutz is from the Mosquito Control Research Laboratory of the University of California at Davis.

316

D. Feldman, What are Hyenas Laughing at, Anyway? pp. 177178.

317

S. Juan, How can objects in the same room be different temperatures?, The Register, 10 November 2006.

318

W. Fitzpatrick, An Open Letter to the World About Colloidal Silver, Argyria Information Website, 13 November 2006.

319

British Broadcasting Commission, True-blue bids for Senate, BBC News (London), 2 October 2002.

320

S. Juan, How the true blue political maverick gave the Senate to the donkeys, The Register, 9 December 2006.

321

Drs Alan Ashworth, B. Howard, H. Panchal and A. Mc-Carthy are from the Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre in London.

322

A. Ashworth et al., Identifi cation of the scaramanga gene implicates Neuregulin 3 in mammary gland specifi cation, Genes and Development, 2005, vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 20782090.

323

Drs D.M. Conde, E. Kashimoto, R. Torresan and M. Alvarenga are from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the Hospital Estadual Sumare and the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in Sumara, Brazil.

324

D. Conde et al., Pseudomamma on the foot: An unusual presentation of supernumerary breast tissue, Dermatology Online Journal, 2006, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 7.

325

S. Juan, Why do some people have three nipples?, The Register, 13 January 2006.

326

Dr C.R. Goding is from the Marie Curie Research Institute in Surrey, UK.

327

C. Goding, Melanocytes: The new black, International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 2007, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 275279.

328

Personal communication, 22 December 2006.

329

S. Juan, Why do we like to scratch a wound when its healing?, The Register, 10 February 2007.

330

Drs Hui-Jun Ma, G. Zhao, F. Shi and Y. Wang are from the Department of Dermatology at the Air Force Hospital of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army in Beijing.

331

H. Ma et al., Eruptive cherry angiomas associated with vitiligo: Provoked by topical nitrogen mustard?, Journal of Dermatology, 2006, vol. 33, no. 12, p. 877.

332

EnergyAustralia, Shower Timers Help Families Become Energy Effi cient, Energy Australia, Sydney, October 2006.

333

S. Juan, Do we really need a daily shower or bath to stay healthy?, The Register, 17 February 2007.

334

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

335

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

336

M. Sims, Adams Navel: A Natural and Cultural History of the Human Form, Viking, New York, 2003, pp. 2527.

337

S. Juan, Why we are not naked even in the womb, The Register, 7 May 2006.

338

M. Symons, Why Girls Cant Throw: and Other Questions You Always Wanted Answered, Harper Paperbacks, New York, 2006, pp. 172173.

339

S. Juan, Will eating crusts make your hair grow curly?, The Register, 4 August 2006.

340

S.Juan, Keeping it in the family, National Post, 20 November 2006, pp. 12.

341

H. Sustaita, A Close Look at the Properties of Hair and Scalp, Houston Community College Northwest, Houston, 2006, pp. 79.

342

S. Juan, Why isnt pubic hair the same colour as hair on your head?, The Register, 15 September 2006.

343

Dr John OConnor is head of the School of Physical Science and Mathematics at the University of Newcastle in Australia.

344

Personal communication, 12 August 2006.

345

S. Juan, Can your hair turn white as a result of shock?, The Register, 29 September 2006.

346

Dr John Mason is a trichologist from Royston near Barnsley in South Yorkshire, UK.

347

J. Mason, The role of the trichologist, Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 2002, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 422425.

348

Personal communication, 12 November 2006.

349

S.Juan, Why is the human face hairless?, The Register, 20 January 2007.

350

P. Abrahams, How the Body Works, Amber Books, London, 2007. p. 415.

351

Dr Alan Greene is a clinical professor at the School of Medicine at Stanford University and chief medical officer of ADAM, a medical information organisation.

352

Dr Robert Baran is from the Nail Disease Centre in Cannes, France.

353

J. Brody, Fingernails can reveal much about habits and health, New York Times, 22 January 1990, pp. B3B4.

354

Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Council on School Health, American Academy of Pediatrics, Active healthy living: Prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity, Pediatrics, 2006, vol. 171, no. 5, pp. 18341842.

355

National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Active Start: A Statement of Physical Activity Guidelines for Children Birth to Five Years, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Reston, Virginia, 2001.

356

Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Childrens Hospital, Melbourne, Leaping early in life, Community Paediatric Review, 2006, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 45.

357

H. Klawans, Strange Behaviour: Tales of Evolutionary Neurology, Norton, New York, 2000, pp. 3738.

358

Drs A.K. Tan and C.B. Tan are from the Department of Neurology at Tan Tock Seng Hospital in Singapore.

359

A. Tan and C. Tan, The syndrome of painful legs and moving toes a case report, Singapore Medical Journal, 1996, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 446447.

360

M. Sims, Adams Navel: A Natural and Cultural History of the Human Form, Penguin Books Australia, Melbourne, 2004, pp. 292295.

361

Drs S.S. Campbell and P.J. Murphy are from the Laboratory of Human Chronobiology in the Department of Psychiatry at Cornell University Medical College in White Plains, New York.

362

S. Campbell and P. Murphy, Extraocular circadian phototransduction in humans, Science, 1998, vol. 279 (5349), pp. 333334.

363

K. Hopkin, Clock setting, Scientifi c American, April 1998, pp. 2022.

364

Dr S. Ooki is from the Department of Health Science of Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University in Kahoku, Japan.

365

S. Ooki, Genetic and environmental influences on fi ngersucking and nail-biting in Japanese twin children, Twin Research and Human Genetics, 2005, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 320327.

366

Drs B. Mangweth, A. Hausmann, C. Danzl, T. Walch, C. Rupp, W. Biebl, J. Hudson and H. Pope are from the Department of Psychiatry at the Innsbruck University Hospital in Austria.

367

B. Mangweth et al., Childhood body-focused behaviours and social behaviours as risk factors of eating disorders, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2005, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 247253.

368

Drs S. Yassaei, M. Rafi eian and R. Ghafari are from the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services in Yazd, Iran.

369

S. Yassaei et al., Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans, Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 2005, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 189192.

370

Drs P.G. Hepper, D. Wells and C. Lynch are from the School of Psychology at Queens University in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

371

P. Hepper et al., Prenatal thumb sucking is related to postnatal handedness, Neuropsychologia, 2005, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 313315.

372

S. Juan, Does thumb-sucking run in families?, The Register, 4 August 2006.

373

S. Juan, Keeping it in the family, National Post, 20 November 2006, pp. 12.

374

C. Frey, The Female Fleet of Foot, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Rosemont, Illinois, 20 July 2006.

375

S. Juan, Why do women have smaller feet?, Epoch Times, 27 July 2006, p. 8.

376

S. Juan, Why do women have smaller feet?, The Register, 11 August 2006.

377

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

378

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

379

B. Hee, Water baby, New Scientist, 28 June 1997, p. 65.

380

S. Juan, What makes a good swimmer?, The Register, 25 August 2006.

381

Dr Kevin Beck is a psychologist from Human Kinetics Inc in Champaign, Illinois.

382

K. Beck, Choosing Optimal Stride Length, Human Kinetics Inc, Champaign, Illinois, 28 August 2006.

383

Dr R. McNeill Alexander is from the School of Biology at the University of Leeds in the UK.

384

R. McNeill Alexander, Energetics and optimisation of human walking and running: The 2000 Raymond Pearl memorial lecture, American Journal of Human Biology, 2002, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 641648.

385

A. Ward-Smith, The bioenergetics of optimal performances in middle distance and long-distance track running, Biomechanics, 1999, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 461465.

386

A. Ward-Smith, Energy conversion strategies during 100 m sprinting, Journal of Sports Science, 2001, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 701710.

387

Dr William Sellars is from the Department of Human Sciences at Loughborough University in the UK.

388

W. Sellars, G. Cain, W. Wang and R. Crompton, Stride lengths, speed and energy costs in walking of Australopithecus afraensis: Using evolutionary robotics to predict locomotion of early human ancestors, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 431441.

389

S. Juan, Is there a speed or stride where running is more effi cient?, The Register, 22 September 2006.

390

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, 1996, p. 238.

391

Dr A. Bazile, N. Bissada, R. Nair and B. Siegel are from the Department of Periodontics at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

392

A. Bazile et al.. Periodontal assessment of patients undergoing angioplasty for treatment of coronary artery disease, Journal of Periodontology, 2002, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 631636.

393

Dr Barbara Taylor is head of periodontics at the Sydney Dental Hospital.

394

B. Taylor, G. Toiler, H. Carey, M. Morel-Kopp, S. Philcox, T. Carter, M. Elliott, A. Kull, C. Ward and K. Schenck, Full mouth tooth extraction lowers systemic infl ammatory and thrombotic markers of cardiovascular risk, Journal of Dental Research, 2006, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 7478.

395

Dr Mark Herzberg is a professor of preventive sciences at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

396

R. Smith, Can fl ossing prevent a heart attack?, Health, May 1998, p. 136.

397

S. Juan, Can fl ossing your teeth prevent a heart attack?, The Register, 29 September 2006.

398

Dr Holly Muggleston is from the School of Health and Applied Sciences at Southern Cross University in New South Wales.

399

Personal communication, 10 November 2006.

400

S. Juan, Will sweets really rot your teeth?, The Register, 24 November 2006.

401

Dr Richard Jonas is from the Childrens National Heart Institute in Washington, DC.

402

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, pp. 123124.

403

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, pp. 123124.

404

E. Widmaier, Why Geese Dont Get Obese (And We Do): How Evolutions Strategies for Survival Aff ect Our Everyday Lives, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1998, p. 178.

405

Drs A. Pelliccia, B. Maron, A. Spataro, M. Proschan and P. Spirito are from the Department of Medicine at the Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano in Rome.

406

A. Pelliccia et al., The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes, New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, vol. 324, no. 25, pp. 18121813.

407

Dr Alfred Goldberg is a professor of cell biology at Harvard Medical School.

408

J. Shaw, The deadliest sin, Harvard Magazine, March-April 2004, pp. 3643, 9899.

409

C. Petit, What causes arteries to harden, San Francisco Chronicle, 17 January 1995, p. 2.

410

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, What is Peripheral Arterial Disease? US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 2 January 2007.

411

A. Ciocco, On the interdependence of the length of life of husband and wife, Human Biology, 1941, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 505525.

412

W. Corliss, Biological Anomalies II, Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Maryland, 1993, pp. 250251.

413

M. Higgins, J. Keller, F. Moore, L. Ostrander, H. Metzner and L. Stock, Studies of blood pressure in Tecumseh, Michigan. I. Blood pressure in young people and its relationship to personal and familial characteristics and complications of pregnancy in mothers, American Journal of Epidemiology, 1980, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 142145.

414

S. Juan, Is heart rate correlated with birth order?, The Register, 7 July 2006.

415

Dr Sally Edwards is the CEO of Heart Zones USA of Sacramento, California.

416

Personal communication, 10 December 2006.

417

S. Juan, How does the heart diff er from other mechanical pumps?, The Register, 23 December 2006.

418

M. Goldwyn, How a Fly Walks Upside Down and Other Curious Facts, Wings, Atlanta, 1995, p. 40.

419

S. Juan, What makes a wound stop bleeding?, The Register, 26 June 2006.

420

Fast Facts, National Hemophilia Foundation, New York, 25 May 2006.

421

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, p. 125.

422

S. Juan, What happened to hemophiliacs before blood supplies were safe?, The Register, 6 June 2006.

423

Drs K. Kasirajan, R. Milner and E. Chaikof are from the School of Medicine at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.

424

K. Kasirajan et al., Combination therapies for deep venous thrombosis, Seminars in Vascular Surgery, 2006, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 116121.

425

S.Juan, What is deep vein thrombosis?, The Register, 14 July 2006.

426

American Red Cross, New England Region, Frequently

Asked Questions, Boston, 2 August 2006.

427

S.Juan, What conditions disqualify you from donating blood?, The Register, 25 August 2006.

428

World Health Organization, Tuberculosis Fact Sheet, Geneva, March 2006.

429

Drs G.A. Lammie, R. Hewlett, J. Shoeman and P. Donald are from the Department of Pathology at Cardiff University in Wales.

430

G. Lammie et al., Tuberculosis encephalopathy: A reappraisal, Acta Neuropathologica (Berlin), 2007, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 227234, Epub 14 December 2006.

431

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, 1996, p. 246.

432

S. Juan, Whatever happened to tuberculosis?, The Register, 3 February 2007.

433

Dr Peter Osin is from the Royal Marsden Hospital in London.

434

Why the fat lady sings there may be a medical reason opera singers tend to be heavy, Evening Standard (London), 28 October 2005.

435

Drs C.W Thorpe, S. Cala, J. Chapman and P. Davis are from the National Voice Centre at the University of Sydney.

436

C. Thorpe et al., Patterns of breath support in projection of the singing voice, Journal of Voice, 2001, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 86104.

437

P. Galek, Size matters, New Scientist, 15 June 2002, p. 63.

438

S. Juan, Why are opera singers fat?, The Register, 26 June 2006.

439

S. Juan, Weighing in on opera singers physiques, National Post, 2 October 2006, pp. 12.

440

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness, Atlanta, 25 July 2006.

441

S. Juan, What fluids should you drink when its hot?, The Register, 18 August 2006.

442

Dr Andrew Lloyd is an infectious disease physician in Sydney.

443

Personal communication, 22 July 2006.

444

Dr Holly Muggleston is from the School of Health and Applied Sciences at Southern Cross University in New South Wales.

445

Personal communication, 24 July 2006.

446

S.Juan, Do you feed a cold and starve a fever?, The Register, 18 August 2006.

447

Dr Shawn Somerset is from the School of Public Health at Griffi th University in Brisbane, Queensland.

448

Personal communication, 9 August 2006.

449

S.Juan, Will eating spinach make me strong?, The Register, 18 August 2006.

450

S. Juan, Why dont we suffer from E. coli all the time?, The Register, 8 September 2006.

451

H. Gleitman, A. Fridlund and D. Reisberg, Psychology (6th edn), WW Norton, New York, 2003.

452

S. Juan, Why do you sometimes lose bowel function when scared?, The Register, 20 October 2006.

453

S.Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

454

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

455

American Liver Society, Gallstones, Nashville, Tennessee, 4 December 2006.

456

Dr Terry Bolin is a gastroenterologist at the Gut Foundation Institute at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the University of New South Wales in Sydney.

457

Personal communication, 4 December 2006.

458

American Liver Society, Gallstones, Nashville, Tennessee, 4 December 2006.

459

Dr Terry Bolin is a gastroenterologist at the Gut Foundation Institute at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the University of New South Wales in Sydney.

460

R. Kazmierski, Primary adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with intramural calcification, American Journal of Surgery, 1951, vol. 82, pp. 248250.

461

Drs Tsung-Chun Lee, K. Liu, 1. Lai and H. Wang are from the National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan.

462

T. Lee et al., Diagnosing porcelain gallbladder, American Journal of Medicine, 2005, vol. 118, no. 10, pp. 11711172.

463

S. Juan, Are women who are forty, fat and fair more likely to get gallstones?, The Register, 20 January 2006.

464

J. Arnold, Scientifi c sleuths track the origins of tapeworms in humans, ARS US Department of Agriculture, 23 October 2006, p. 1.

465

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, pp. 237238.

466

S. Juan, How much damage does a tapeworm do to the human body?, The Register, 27 January 2007.

467

S. Juan, How much damage does a tapeworm do to the human body?, The Register, 27 January 2007.

468

Drs G. Koren and C. Maltepe are from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada.

469

G. Koren and C. Maltepe, Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness, Canadian Family Physician, 2006, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 15451546.

470

Drs C. Louik, S. Hernandez-Diaz, M. Werler and A. Mitchell are from the Slone Epidemiology Centre at Boston University.

471

C. Louik et al., Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: Maternal characteristics and risk factors, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 2006, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 270278.

472

L. Farina, I. JefFcoate and R. Lucas, Dodgy tummy, New Science, 6 January 2007, p. 57.

473

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, 1996, pp. 210211.

474

Drs I. Ahmed, D. Deakin and S.L. Parsons are from the Department of General Surgery at the Queens Medical Centre in Nottingham, UK.

475

I. Ahmed et al., Appendix mass: Do we know how to treat it?, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 2005, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 191195.

476

S. Juan, Do we still remove the appendix as often as we used to?, The Register, 26 May 2006.

477

Timothy L. Taylor is a science writer from Vancouver, Canada.

478

T. Taylor, The Prehistory of Sex: Four Million Years of Human Culture, Bantam, New York, 1996.

479

S. Juan, What lies within, The Register, 9 June 2006.

480

S. Juan, Why seeing is not always believing, National Post, 28 September 2006, pp. 12.

481

S.Juan, How long does it take the body to?, Epoch Times, 19 May 2006, p. 8.

482

S. Juan, Ready, steady, grow, The Register, 26 May 2006.

483

Dr K. Nakamura is a chemist and Dr Mitsuo Hiramatsu is a photobiologist at the Electron Tube Division of the Central Research Laboratory at Hamamatsu Photonics in Hamamatsu, Japan.

484

K. Nakamura and M. Hiramatsu, Ultra-weak photon emission from human hand: Influence of temperature and oxygen concentration on emission, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 2005, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 156160.

485

Drs M.P. Guedj and A. Lev are from the University Hospital of Hadassah in Israel.

486

M. Guedj and A. Lev, Situs inversus: Leave well alone, Annales Francaises dAnesthesie et de Reanimation, 2007, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 265266.

487

Goddard Space Flight Centre, Ask an Astronaut, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, 12 February 2007.

488

Dr Samuel Conway is from Avid Therapeutics in Philadelphia.

489

Personal communication, 8 February 2007.

490

R. Marsden and C. Robertson, Major Toms, New Scientist, 31 August 1996, p. 65.

491

Drs Richard Jennings and Ellen Baker are from the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston.

492

R. Jennings and E. Baker, Gynecological and reproductive issues for women in space: A review, Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 2000, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 109116.

493

J. Jones, R. Jennings, R. Pietryzk, N. Ciftcioglu and P. Stepaniak, Genitourinary issues during spacefl ight: A review, international Journal of Impotence Research, 2005, vol. 17 (Suppl. 1), pp. S64S67.

494

S. Juan, What issues are there for women in space?, The Register, 28 July 2006.

495

G. Mirkin, Catch a Cold, DrMirkin.com, 13 November 2006.

496

Dr Terry Bolin is a gastroenterologist at the Gut Foundation Institute at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the University of New South Wales in Sydney.

497

Personal communication, 12 November 2006.

498

Dr Andrew Lloyd is from the School of Medicine at the University of Newcastle in New South Wales.

499

M. Ham, But my mum said, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 January 2006, Health & Science, pp. 4.

500

Dr Richard Fedorak is from the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton, Canada.

501

Personal communication, 3 January 2007.

502

Dr Roshini Rajapaksa is from the New York University School of Medicine.

503

Personal communication, 3 January 2007.

504

J. Richfi eld, No swimming, New Scientist, 12 January 2007, p. 57.

505

Drs A. K. Myhre, K. Berntzen and D. Bratlid are from the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Childrens and Womens Health at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim.

506

A. Myhre et al., Genital anatomy in non-abused preschool girls, Acta Paediatrica, 2003, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 14531462.

507

S. Juan, What is the use of the hymen?, The Register, 11 August 2006.

508

M. Foster, The boob-onic plague, Weekly World News, 26 August 2002, pp. 4243.

509

K. Campbell and M. Lakie, Aaaaaah?, New Scientist, 15 March 1997, p. 65.

510

S. Juan, A blow for babe magnets, National Post, 17 April 2006, p. 1.

511

Dr Michael Onken is from the Department of Anatomy at Washington University in St Louis.

512

Personal communication, 30 March 2006.

513

S.Juan, A blow for babe magnets, National Post, 17 April 2006, p. 1.

514

Stephen Turner is an engineer with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in Atlanta, Georgia.

515

Personal communication, 23 August 2006.

516

Personal communication, 24 August 2006.

517

S. Juan, Why do some people feel the cold more than others?, The Register, 8 September 2006.

518

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 27 January 2007.

519

S. Juan, Great moments in human research, The Register, 3 February 2007.

520

Drs J. M. Draus, S. Huss, N. Harty, W. Cheadle and G. Larson are from the Department of Surgery at the School of Medicine at the University of Louisville, Kentucky.

521

J. Draus et al., Enterocutaneous fistula: Are treatments improving?, Surgery, 2006, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 570578.

522

S. Juan, What is a fi stula?, The Register, 27 October 2006.

523

S. Juan, Does alcohol really keep you warm, The Register, 27 October 2006.

524

Dr Gerhard Gmel is from the Alcohol Treatment Centre at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, and Dr Jurgen Rehm is from the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Toronto, Canada.

525

G. Gmel and J. Rehm, Harmful alcohol use, Alcohol Research and Health, 2003, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5262.

526

S. Juan, Three orders of the mind, Epoch Times, 20 December 2006, p. 9.

527

R. Campbell, Campbells Psychiatric Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004, pp. 538539, 541.

528

S. Juan, Keeping your psychos straight, National Post, 15 May 2006, pp. 12.

529

Dr John Gartner is a clinical psychologist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

530

J. Gartner, Dark Minds, Psychology Today, September-October 2009, pp. 3738.

531

Dr Patrick Leman is from the Royal Holloway College of the University of London.

532

British Psychological Society, Who shot the president? London, 18 March 2003.

533

P. Leman, The born conspiracy, New Scientist, 14 July 2007, pp. 3537.

534

Dr Robert Burns was formerly the Director of the Institute for Human Development at the University of Seattle, Washington.

535

M. Taylor, Why we doodle, In Health, March-April 1991, pp. 3033.

536

M. Taylor, Why we doodle, In Health, March-April 1991, pp. 3033.

537

M. Taylor, Why we doodle, In Health, March-April 1991, pp. 3033.

538

British Broadcasting Commission, Blair doodles amuse Number 10, BBC News (London), 30 January 2005.

539

Sifting through the mystery of JFKs doodles, Associated Press (New York), 23 November 2004.

540

N. Nelson, The Doodle Dictionary, Doubleday, New York, 1992.

541

S. Juan, Why do we doodle?, The Register, 13 October 2006.

542

E. Dykeman, Doodling as a memory boost, Elder Care Express Newsletter (East Lansing, Michigan), 5 March 2009.

543

Dr Jackie Andrade is from the School of Psychology at the University of Plymouth in the UK.

544

J. Andrade, What does doodling do?, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2009, vol. 23, no. 2, Epub 27 February 2009.

545

I. Sample, Doodling should be encouraged in boring meetings, claims psychologist, The Guardian (London), 27 February 2009, p. 15.

546

Dr Peter Quintieri is from the School of Medicine at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and Dr Kenneth Weiss is from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

547

P. Quintieri and K. Weiss, Admissibility of false-confession testimony: Know thy standard, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 2005, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 535538.

548

Drs S.M. Kassin, C. Meissner and R. Norwick are from the Department of Psychology at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts.

549

S. Kassin et al., Id know a false confession if I saw one: A comparative study of college students and police investigators, Law and Human Behaviour, 2005, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 211227.

550

S. Juan, What is a Confessing Sam?, The Register, 1 September 2006.

551

J. Leckenby, Claims About the Power of Subliminal Advertising, Center for Interactive Advertising, University of Texas, Austin, 6 March 2006.

552

Drs Susan Crawley, C. French and S. Yesson are from the Department of Psychology at Goldsmith College of the University of London.

553

S. Crawley et al., Evidence for transliminality from a subliminal card-guessing task, Perception, 2002, vol. 31, pp. 88792.

554

S. Juan, Hidden messages and ESP, National Post, 27 March 2006, p. 1.

555

P. Marks, The lie-detector youll never know is there, New Scientist, 7 January 2006, p. 22.

556

S. Juan, Do lie detector tests really work?, The Register, 16 June 2006.

557

S. Juan, It would be a lie to say that its a lie-detector, National Post, 6 November 2006, p. 1.

558

M. Huelsman et al., Relation of religiosity with academic dishonesty in a sample of college students, Psychological Reports, 2006, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 73942.

559

Drs M.K Johnson, S. Hashtroudi and D.S. Lindsay are from the Department of Psychology at Princeton University, New Jersey.

560

M. Johnson et al., Source monitoring, Psychological Bulletin, 1993, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 328

561

Drs S. A. Perkins and E. Turiel are from the Department of Psychology at the University of California at Berkeley.

562

S. Perkins and E. Turiel, To lie or not to lie: To whom and under what circumstances, Child Development, 2007, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 60921.

563

S. Juan, How honest are humans, National Post, 17 April 2007, pp. 12.

564

R. Comer and J Laird, Choosing to suffer as a consequence of expecting to suff er: Why do people do it?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 92101.

565

Drs Rebecca Curtis, Paul Smith and Robert Moore are from the Department of Psychology at Adelphi University in New York.

566

R. Curtis et al. Suff ering to improve outcomes determined by both chance and skill, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1984, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 165173.

567

Drs Roy Baumeister, Jean Twenge and Christopher Nuss are from the Department of Psychology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland.

568

R. Baumeister et al., Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 817827.

569

Drs T.B. Kashdan, J. Elhai and B. Frueh are from the Department of Psychology at George Mason University in Virginia.

570

T. Kashdan et al., Anhedonia and emotional numbing in combat veterans with PTSD, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2006, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 457467.

571

R. Campbell, Campbells Psychiatric Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004, p. 40.

572

Dr Ayala Malach-Pines is a psychologist at Ben-Gurion University in Beersheba, Israel.

573

A. Malach-Pines, Romantic Jealousy: Causes, Symptoms, Cures, Routledge, London, 1998, p. 102.

574

Dr Salman Akhtar is from the Jeff erson Medical College in Philadelphia.

575

S. Akhtar, Forgiveness: Origins, dynamics, psychopathology, and technical relevance, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 2002, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 17512.

576

Dr David Lotto is from the University of Massachusetts School of Medicine in Boston.

577

D. Lotto, The psychohistory of vengeance, Journal of Psychohistory, 2006, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 4359.

578

Dr Anthony N. G. Clark is a psychologist from Brighton in the UK.

579

Personal communication, 4 March 2005.

580

S. Juan, What cultures dont share Western economic values?, The Register, 16 June 2006.

581

Dr W. E. Addison is from the Department of Psychology at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston.

582

W. Addison, Beardedness as a factor in perceived masculinity, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1989, vol. 68, pp. 921922.

583

Drs Michael Shannon and C. Patrick Stark are from the Department of Psychology at Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado.

584

M. Shannon and C. Stark, The infl uence of physical appearance on personnel selection, Social Behaviour and Personality, 2003, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 613623.

585

Drs A. A. de Souza, V. B. Baiao and E. Otta are from the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.

586

A. de Souza et al., Perception of mens personal qualities and prospect of employment as a function of facial hair, Psychological Reports, 2003, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 20108.

587

S. Juan, Aching heads, New York Daily News, 10 May 2005, The Odd Body, pp. 12.

588

Dr Roy Baumeister, J. Twenge and K. Catanese are from the Case Western Reserve University, Ohio.

589

J. Briggs, I.Q. bruised as ego battered, Psychology Today, August 2002, p. 42.

590

S. Juan, Women warmer at the core, National Post, 6 February 2006, pp. 12.

591

Drs O. Egger and M. Rauterberg are from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland.

592

O. Egger and M. Rauterberg, Internet Behaviour and Addiction, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 1996.

593

Dr K.S. Young is from the Department of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, Pennsylvania.

594

K. Young, Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder, Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 1996, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 237244.

595

S. Juan, Could you be addicted to the internet?, The Register, 22 September 2006.

596

H. Phillips, Just cant get enough, New Scientist, 26 August 2006, pp. 3035.

597

Dr Andrew Scholey is a psychopharmacologist at the University of Northumbria in Newcastle, UK.

598

R. Edwards, All in the mind?, New Scientist, 29 April 2000, p. 19.

599

S. Juan, Can you become intoxicated by the power of suggestion?, Epoch Times, 26 September 2006.

600

Drs M. S. Vos and J. C. de Haes are from the Department of Psychiatry at the Bronovo Hospital in The Hague, The Netherlands.

601

M. Vos and J. Haes, Denial in cancer patients, an explorative review, Psycho-Oncology, 2007. vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1225, Epub 25 July 2006.

602

S. Juan, Why are people so often in denial?, The Register, 29 September 2006.

603

Dr Marcelo Suarez-Orozco is from the Department of Anthropology at the University of California at San Diego.

604

Dr G.C. Gauchard, J. Muir, C. Touron, L. Benamghar, D. Dehaene, P. Perrin and N. Chau are from the WHO Collaborative Centre in the Faculty of Medicine at the Henri Poincare University in Nancy, France.

605

Professor Ivan Robertson and colleagues are from the Institute of Science and Technology at the University of Manchester, UK.

606

C. Martin, He spent life picking himself up, The Denver Post, 23 September 2006.

607

S. Juan, What type of person is accident-prone?, The Register, 20 October 2006.

608

Dr Dale Larson is from Santa Clara University and Dr R.L. Chastain is from Samuel Merritt College in Oakland, California.

609

D. Larson and R. Chastain, Self-concealment: Conceptualisation, measurement, and health implications, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1990, vol. 9, pp. 439455.

610

Dr J. W. Pennebaker is from the Department of Psychology at the University of Texas in Austin.

611

J. Pennebaker, Opening Up: The Healing Power of Expression Emotion, Guilford, New York, 1997.

612

Drs C. E. Hill. C. Gelso and J. Mohr are from the University of Maryland at College Park.

613

C. Hill et al., Client concealment and self-presentation in therapy: Comment on Kelly (2000), Psychological Bulletin, 2000, vol. 126, pp. 495500.

614

Drs Anita Kelly and Jonathan Yip are from the Department of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana.

615

A. Kelly and J. Yip, Is keeping a secret or being a secretive person linked to psychological symptoms?, Journal of Personality, 2006, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 13491370.

616

Dr Marie Hartwell-Walker is clinical director of the Adult Outpatient Services Program of the Community Mental Health Centre of Western Massachusetts in Springfi eld.

617

R. Campbell, Campbells Psychiatric Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004, pp. 328, 497.

618

S. Juan, Which comes first: Imagination or fantasy?, The Register, 19 May 2006.

619

T. Cassidy, 3ear-old girl has died 35 times!, Weekly World News, 4 August 1998, p. 24.

620

Dr J.B. Stephenson is from the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Glasgow, Scotland.

621

J. Stephenson, Refl ex anoxic seizures (while breath holding): Nonepileptic vagal attacks, Archives of Disease in Children, 1978, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 193200.

622

I. Horrocks, A. Nechav, J. Stephenson and S. Zuberi, Anoxic-epileptic seizures: Observational study of epileptic seizures induced by syncopes, Archives of Disease in Children, 2005, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 12831287.

623

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, p. 122.

624

S. Juan, Is long life related to where you live?, The Register, 6 June 2006.

625

S. Juan, It would be a lie to say that its a lie-detector, National Post, 6 November 2006, pp. 12.

626

Dr Steven Stack is a psychologist at Wayne State University in Detroit.

627

S. Stack, Opera subculture and suicide for honor, Death Studies, 2002, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 431437.

628

J. Holoubek and E. Holoubek, Execution by crucifixion. History, methods and cause of death, Journal of Medicine, 1995, vol. 26, nos. 12, pp. 116.

629

Drs F.R Retief and L. Cilliers are from the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

630

F. Retief and L. Cilliers, The history and pathology of crucifi xion, South African Medical Journal, 2003, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 938941.

631

Dr Raymond Fish is from the University of Illinois in Champaign and Dr Leslie Geddes is from Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana.

632

R. Fish and L. Geddes, Eff ects of stun guns and tasers, The Lancet, 2001, vol. 358 (9283), pp. 687688.

633

Dr William P. Bozeman is from the Department of Emergency Medicine at the School of Medicine at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

634

W. Bozeman, Withdrawal of taser electroshock devices: Too many, too soon, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2005, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 300301.

635

J. Strote and H. Range Hutson, Taser use in restraint-related deaths, Prehospital Emergency Care, 2006, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 447450.

636

D. Lakkireddy, D. Wallick, K. Ryschon, M. Chung, J. Butany, D. Martin, W. Saliba, W. Kowalewski, A. Natalie and P. Tchou, Effects of cocaine intoxication on the threshold for stun gun induction of ventricular fi brillation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2006, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 805811.

637

E. Jenkinson, C. Neeson and A. Bleetman, The relative risks of police use-of-force options: Evaluating the potential for deployment of electronic weaponry, Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 2006, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 229241.

638

S. Juan, Can stun guns and tasers cause death?, The Register, 13 October 2006.

639

Drs S. Izumi, A. Suyama and K. Koyama are from the Radiation Eff ects Research Foundation in Hiroshima.

640

S. Izumi et al., Radiation-related mortality among offspring of atomic bomb survivors: A half-century of followup, International Journal of Cancer, 2003, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 292297.

641

Drs C. Hansen and C. Schriner are from the Department of Veterans Aff airs in St Louis.

642

D. Hansen and C. Schriner, Unanswered questions: The legacy of atomic veterans, Health Physics, 2005, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 153163.

643

S. Juan, Survivors kids have normal lifespan, National Post, 8 May 2006, p. 1.

644

Dr Troy Case is from the Department of Anthropology at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

645

J. Varasdi, Myth Information, pp. 212213.

646

T. Case, An analysis of scalping cases and treatment of the victims corpses in prehistoric North America, unpublished paper, 2006.

647

S. Juan, What was wrong with the bubble boy?, The Register, 15 May 2006.

648

K. Creed, Doctors study mysterious Burping Corpse in LA, Weekly World News, 12 May 1998, p. 11.

649

S. Juan, Can a corpse burp?, The Register, 30 June 2006.

650

Dr David Lester is a professor of psychology at the Richard Stockton College in Pomona, New Jersey.

651

D. Lester, Personal violence (suicide and homicide), traffic fatalities and alcohol consumption, Psychological Reports, 1988, vol. 62, no. 2, p. 433.

652

Drs T. J. Scanlon, R. Luben, F. Scanlon and N. Singleton are from the Department of Public Health at the Mid Downs Health Authority in West Sussex, UK.

653

T. Scanlon et al., Is Friday the 13th bad for your health?, British Medical Journal, 1993, vol. 307 (6919), pp. 15841586.

654

Dr Simo Nayha is from the Department of Public Health Science and General Practice at the University of Oulu in Finland.

655

S. Nayha, Traffi c deaths and superstition on Friday the 13th, American Journal of Psychiatry, 2002, vol. 159, no. 12, pp. 21102111.

656

Dr Donald Smith is a psychiatrist from Risskov, Denmark.

657

D. Smith, Traffi c accidents and Friday the 13th, American Journal of Psychiatry, 2004, vol. 161, no. 11, p. 2140.

658

Drs I. Radun and H. Summala are from the Traffi c Research Unit of the Department of Psychology at the University of Helsinki, Finland.

659

I. Radun and H. Summala, Females do not have more injury road accidents on Friday the 13th, BMC Public Health, 2004, vol. 4, p. 54.

660

Drs V. V. Kumar, N. V. Kumar and G. Isaacson are from the Department of Otolaryngology at the School of Medicine at Temple University in Philadelphia.

661

V. Kumar et al., Superstition and post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage, Laryngoscope, 2004, vol. 114, no. 11, pp. 20312033.

662

S. Juan, Is Friday the 13th bad for your health?, The Register, 7 July 2006.

663

S. Juan, No ill fortune on Friday the 13th, National Post, 16 October 2006, pp. 13.

664

Dr K. Eto is from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment and the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Minamata.

665

K. Eto, Minamata disease: A neuropathological viewpoint, Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, 2006, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1023.

666

S. Juan, The Minamata disaster 50 years on, The Register, 14 July 2006.

667

Personal communication, 6 July 2006.

668

S. Juan, Can you die from testing a 9V battery on your tongue?, The Register, 28 July 2006.

669

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Diphtheria, Atlanta, Georgia, 2 August 2006.

670

S. Juan, What is diphtheria?, The Register, 25 August 2006.

671

S. Juan, What is the diff erence between a virus and a bacterium?, The Register, 29 September 2006.

672

L. Kund van der Post, Dive, dive, dive, New Scientist, 5 October 1996, p. 65.

673

M. Gregorie, R. Clifton, M. Morton, K. Bastien and A. Bowyer, Free-falling, New Scientist, 29 July 2006, p. 65.

674

S. Juan, From what height can you survive a dive into water?, The Register, 20 October 2006.

675

Dr T. Bernstein is from the Wallace-Kettering Neuroscience Institute at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio.

676

Dr T. Bernstein is from the Wallace-Kettering Neuroscience Institute at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio.

677

L. Zynda and K. Skiba, Fracture of both humeral bones after electrocution, Chirurgia Narzadow Ruchu I Ortopedia Polska, 1991, vol. 56, nos. 13, pp. 6465.

678

N. Friswell, M. Follows and M. Brown, When people die of electric shocks, what kills them current or voltage?, New Scientist, 22 April 2006, p. 65.

679

S. Juan, What happens when you are executed by electrocution?, The Register, 20 October 2006.

680

Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Country Reports on Terrorism, US Department of State, Washington, DC, 28 April 2006.

681

Dr HA. Sampson is from the Elliot and Roslyn Jaffe Food Allergy Institute at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York.

682

H. Sampson, Anaphylaxis and emergency treatment, Pediatrics, 2003, vol. Ill, no. 6, pt. 3, pp. 16011608.

683

World Health Organization (WHO), The World Health Report 2002 Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, WHO, Geneva, 2002, p. 82.

684

S. Juan, What if you are hit by lightning, National Post, 8 May 2007, pp. 12.

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