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1

Andrew Sullivan, America at War: America Wakes Up to a World of Fear. Sunday Times (London), September 16, 2001.

2

ADM 116/3099, June 22, 1912, memo by Winston Churchill, p. 23. ( . ADM, CAB WO , .)

3

J.H. Rose, A.P. Newton, and E.A. Benians, The Cambridge History of the British Empire, vol. 1 (Cambridge: The University Press, 1929), p. 95.

4

Foreign Office memo cited in Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (London: Macrnillan, 1983), p. 219.

5

India Office Library, Curzon Papers, vol. 144, Godley to Curzon, November 10, 1899, cited ibid., p. 211.

6

CAB 38/8/14, February 24,1905, Our Present Minimum Military Requirements, p. 1.

7

Crowe Memorandum of January 1,1907, citedin Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 193.

8

Cited in Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, p. 224.

9

CAB 24/107, June9,1920, BritishMilitary Liabilities, p. 12.

10

CAB4/21/1087B, March 11,1932, Imperial Defense Policy, p. 2; CAB 2/5, April 6,1933, Minutes of the 258th Meeting of the Committee of Imperial Defence.

11

CAB 16/111 /120, June 20,1934, Disarmament Conference 1932, p. 2.

12

CAB 16/111/125, july 18,1934, naval defence requirements, p. 1.

13

Grenfell cited in Williamson Murray, The Change in the European Balance of Power, 19381939. (Princeton: Princeton University Press), p. 75.

14

WO 33/1004, January 10, 1922, The Interim Report of the Committee on National Expenditure, Doc. VII, p. 51.

15

Ironside cited in William R. Rock, British Appeasement in the 1930s (London: Edward Arnold, 1977), p. 46.

16

CAB 21 /700, February 22,1937, Review of Imperial Defence, p. 12.

17

CAB 53/13, J.P. 315, September 23, 1938, The Czechoslovak Crisis, cited in Murray, European Balance of Power, p. 209.

18

Martin Gilbert, The Roots of Appeasement (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966), p. 186.

19

Excerpts from Pentagon's Plan: Prevent the Re-Emergence of a New Rival, New York Times, March 8,1992.

20

Interview of the President by Wolf Blitzer, CNN Late Edition, June 20,1999. Available at: http://clinton6.nara/ http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/06/1999-06-20-late-night-edition-cnn-inter-view.html

21

After Kosovo: Building a Lasting Peace, remarks delivered at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, June 28,1999. Available at: http://www.cfr.org/public/pubs/AlbrightRem.html

22

Richard Haass, cited in Thorn Shanker, White Hous Says the U.S. Is Not a Loner, Just Choosy, New York Times July 31, 2001.

23

Alan Sipress, Bush Retreats from U.S. Role as Peace Broker, Washington Post, March 17, 2001.

24

David E. Sanger, Bush Tells Seoul Talks with North Won't Resume Now, New York Times, March 7, 2001.

25

The United States Commission on National Security/21 st Century, New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century. Available at: http://www.nssg.gov/Reports/NWC.pdf

26

Tyndall Report, as cited in David Shaw, Foreign News Shrinks in an Era of Globalization, Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2001.

27

Hall's Magazine Editorial Reports, cited in James F. Hoge, Jr., Foreign News: Who Gives a Damn? Columbia Journalism Review, vol. 36, no. 4 (November December 1997), p. 4852.

28

Pew Center for the People and the Press, Public and Opinion Leaders Favor Enlargement, October 7,1997. Available at: http://208.240.91.18/natorel.htm

29

Gerard Baker and David Buchan, American Isolationism Put to the Test, Financial Times, October 15,1999.

30

14 2001 , . 98 420 (1 ), , 20 23 2001 92 , . .: Poll Finds Support for War and Fear on Economy, New York Times, September 25,2001.

31

Shibley Telhami, The Mideast Is Also Changed, New York Times, September 19,2001.

32

Francois Heisbourg, De l'apres-guerre froide a l'hyperterrorisme, Le Monde, September 13, 2001.

33

Adam Clymer, A House Divided. Senate, Too, New York Times, December 2, 2001.

34

Powell cited in Lawrence F. Kaplan, Drill Sergeant, The New Republic, March 26, 2001. Available at: http://www.tnr.com/032601/kaplan032601.html http://www.tnr.com/032601/kaplan032601.html

35

. U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services, January 1998 to December 2000. Available at: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/2000pr/FinalRevisions2000/exhl.txt 10 10 . U.S. International Transactions Account Data. Available at: http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/international/bpweb/list.clm?anon=127

36

, . Eric A. Nordlinger, Isolationism Reconfigured: American Foreign Policy for a New Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995); and Eugene Gholz, Daryl G. Press, and Harvey M. Sapolsky, Come Home, America: The Strategy of Restraint in the Face of Temptation, International Security, vol. 21, no. 4 (Spring 1997), p. 548.

37

The Sources of Soviet Conduct, Foreign Affairs, vol. 25, no. 4 (July 1947), p. 566582.

38

Moscow Embassy Telegram #511, February 22,1946, in Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 19451950, ed. Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), p. 5563.

39

United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, NSC-68, April 14,1950, ibid., p. 427.

40

Paper prepared by Mr. John Foster Dulles, Consultant to the Secretary of State, Estimate of Situation, November 30, 1950, in Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950, vol. 6 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), p. 162.

41

Final Report of the Joint MDAP Survey Mission to Southeast Asia, December 6, 1950, ibid., p., 166.

42

Dulles, Estimate of Situation, p. 162.

43

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History? National Interest, no. 16 (Summer 1989), p. 318; Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992).

44

John J. Mearsheimer, Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War, International Security, vol. 15, no. 1 (Summer 1990), p. 556; John J. Mearsheimer, Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 266, no. 2 (August 1990), p. 3550.

45

Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, vol. 72, no. 3 (Summer 1993); Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996).

46

Matthew Connelly and Paul Kennedy, Must It Be the Rest Against the West? Atlantic Monthly, vol. 274, no. 6 (December 1994), p. 6183. Preparing for the Twenty-first Century (New York: Random House, 1993).

47

Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 273, no. 2 (February 1994), p. 4476; Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (New York: Random House, 2000).

48

Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999).

49

Fukuyama, The End of History? p. 4.

50

Fukuyama, The End of History and the LastMan, p. XVIII.

51

.: Michael W. Doyle, Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 12, nos. 3 and 4 (Summer and Fall 1983), p. 205235, p. 323353; Bruce M. Russett, Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post Cold War World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); Debating the Democratic Peace, ed. Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996); and Paths to Peace: Is Democracy the Answer? ed. Miriam Fendius Elman (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997).

52

Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man, p. XX.

53

Ibid., p. 276.

54

Fukuyama, The End of History? p. 18.

55

Francis Fukuyama, SecondThoughts: The Last Man in a Bottle, National Interest, no. 56 (Summer 1999), p. 1633.

56

Mearsheimer, Back to the Future, p. 142. , , , (The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, New York: Norton, 2001). , , . , , , . .

57

Kenneth N. Waltz, The Emerging Structure of International Politics, International Security, vol. 18, no. 2 (Fall 1993), p. 66. . Aaron L. Friedberg, Ripe for Rivalry: Prospects for Peace in a Multipolar Asia, International Security, vol. 18, no. 3 (Winter 19931994), p. 533.

58

Mearsheimer, Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War, p. 36.

59

Mearsheimer, Back to the Future, p. 147.

60

Mearsheimer, Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War, p. 35.

61

Ibid., p. 46.

62

Ibid.

63

Ibid., p. 40.

64

Ibid., p. 42.

65

Ibid., p. 50.

66

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations?, p. 24.

67

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and thej Remaking of World Order, p. 4143.

68

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations?, p. 25.

69

Ibid., p. 31.

70

Ibid., p. 22.

71

Ibid., p. 29.

72

Ibid., p. 48.

73

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, p. 20

74

Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations?, p. 49.

75

Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987); Robert D. Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History (New York: St. Martin's, 1993); and Robert D. Kaplan, The Ends of the Earth: A Journey at the Dawn of the 21 st Century (New York: Random House, 1996).

76

Connelly and Kennedy, Must It Be the Rest Against the West?, p. 62, 69,79.

77

Kennedy, Preparing for the Twenty-first Century, p. 331.

78

Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, p. xiii.

79

Ibid., p. 24.

80

Connelly and Kennedy, Must It Be the Rest Against the West?, p. 62.

81

Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy, Pivotal States and U.S. Strategy, Foreign Affairs, vol. 75, no. 1 (January February 1996), p. 63.

82

Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, p. 7, 19.

83

Connelly and Kennedy, Must It Be the Rest Against the West?, p. 79.

84

Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, p. 120.

85

Ibid.

86

Ibid., p. 125.

87

Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, p. 78.

88

Ibid., p. xviii.

89

Ibid., p. 201.

90

Ibid., p. 86.

91

., for example, Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

92

., for example, Thomas Risse-Kappen, Cooperation Among Democracies: The European Influence on U. S. Foreign Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997).

93

Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Basic Books, 1990).

94

Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, p. 196198.

95

Ibid., p. 41.

96

Ibid.

97

Ibid., p. 212.

98

Thomas Friedman, World War III, New York Times, September 13, 2001. Rankings based on market capitalization as of March 28, 2002, Financial Times Global 500 Guide, May 8, 2002.

99

Available at: http://specials.ft.com/spdocs/FT3BNS7BW0D.pdf

100

Jane Perlez, With Time Short, Albright Stays Aloft, New York Times, July 3, 2000.

101

World Bank, China 2020: Development Challenges in the New Century (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1997), p. 103.

102

Senate Resolution 208, November 8, 1999.

103

Henry Kissinger, U.S. Intervention in Kosovo Is a Mistake, Boston Globe, March 1,1999.

104

Cited in Edmund Andrews, Bush Angers Europe by Eroding Pact on Warming, New York Times, April 1, 2001.

105

David Sanger, Bush Flatly States U.S. Will Pull Out of Missile Treaty, New York Times, August 24, 2001.

106

Dana Milbank, Bush Advocates a Wider NATO, Washington Post, June 16, 2001.

107

Bush Unpopular in Europe, Seen as Unilateralist, August 15, 2001. Available at: http://people-press.org/reports/displayphp3?ReportID=5 Survey conducted by the International Herald Tribune, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. . Adam Clymer, Surveys Find European Public Critical of Bush Policies, New York Times, August 16, 2001.

108

JohnKifner, 56IslamicNationsAvoidCondemningU.S. Attacks, but Warn on Civilian Casualties, New York Times, October 11,2001.

109

Laurie Goodstein, Muslim Scholars Back Fight Against Terrorists, New York Times, October 12, 2001.

110

. Stephen M. Walt, The Origins of Alliances (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).

111

President Calvin Coolidge, State of the Union Address, December 4, 1928, a; cited in John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash, 1929 (New York: Time Inc., 1961), p. 7.

112

Ibid., p. 2627, 70.

113

Cited ibid., p. 38.

114

Cited ibid., p. 73.

115

Cited ibid., p. 74.

116

Ibid., p. 80.

117

Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 86.

118

Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression, 19291939 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), p. 171172.

119

Dietmar Rothermund, The Global Impact of the Great Depression, 19291939 (London: Routledge, 1996), p. 55.

120

Cited in Brendon, The Dark Valley, p. 31.

121

Cited inTatsuji Takeuchia, War and Diplomacy in the Japanese Empire (New York: Doubleday, 1935), p. 353.

122

Kindleberger, The World in Depression, p. 308.

123

Galbraith, The Great Crash, p. 173174.

124

Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Farrar, Strai & Giroux, 1999), p. 7.

125

Ibid., p. 78.

126

Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, in Collected Writings (New York: Literal Classics of the United States, 1995), p. 598599.

127

John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: With Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy (Fairfield, N.J.: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers, 1976), p. 582.

128

Norman Angell, The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to Their Economic and Social Advantage (New York: Putnam, 1910), p. 31, 5455. , .

129

Congressman Paul Ryan, statement to U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Banking and Financial Ser vices, Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy, Margin Lending, March 21, 2000. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/bank/hba63474.000/hba634740.HTM

130

Robert J. Shiller, Irrational Exuberance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 35.

131

Ibid., p. xii xiii.

132

Ibid., p. 59. , .

133

New York Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange Member Firms Customers' Margin Debt, January 1992 through February 2002. Available at: http://www.nyse.com/pdfs/margin0202.pdf . Gretchen Morgenson, Buying on Margin Becomes a Habit, New York Times, March 24, 2000.

134

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Banking and Financial Services, Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy, Margin Lending, March 21,2000. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/bank/hba63474.000/hba634740.htm

135

International Monetary Fund, International Capital Markets: Developments, Prospects, and Key Policy Issues (Washington, D.C.: IMF, 2000), p. 1011.

136

Stephan Haggard, The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2000), p. 4, 6.

137

Gerard Baker and Stephen Fidler, O'Neill Signals Hands-Off Stance on World Economy, Financial Times, February 15, 2001.

138

, 50 , . 2001 , .

139

Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan, December 5, 1996, Francis Boyer Lecture of the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Available at: http://federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/l996/l9961205.htm

140

Charlie Rose Transcript no. 2713, program of June 27, 2000.

141

.: Haggard, The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis, p. 113.

142

Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan, Global Challenges, July 12, 2000, at the Financial Crisis Conference, Council on Foreign Relations, New York. Available at: http://federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2000/20OO0712.htm

143

Quotes from Steven Pearlstein, Debating How to Repair Global Financial System, Washington Post, September 24, 2000.

144

Robert Gilpin, The Challenge of Global Capitalism: The World Economy in the 21st Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 161.

145

. Paul A. Papayoanou, Power Ties: Economic Interdependence, Balancing, and War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), p. 63.

146

.: Jack L. Snyder, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict (New York: Norton, 2000).

147

Martin Wolf, The Economic Failure of Islam, Financial Times, September 26, 2001.

148

Thomas Friedman, Smoking or Non-Smoking? New York Times, September 14, 2001.

149

. Joseph Yam, International Capital Flows and Free Markets, remarks made at the Credit Suisse First Boston Asian Investment Conference, March 26,1999. Available at: http://www%20info%20gov%20hk/hkma/eng/speeches/speechs/joseph/speech260399b%20htm http://www.info.gov/hk/hkma/eng/speeches/speechs/joseph/speech260399b.htm

150

Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957).

151

Martin Wolf, The Lure of the American Way, Financial Times, November 1, 2000.

152

Rothermund, The Global Impact of the Great Depression, p. 29.

153

Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Essay (New York: Macmillan, 1917). Originally published in 1795.

154

.: chap. 2, n. 15.

155

William Jefferson Clinton, Confronting the Challenges of a Broader World, address to the U.N. General Assembly, New York City, September 27, 1993. Available at: http://dosfan%20lib%20uic%20edu/ERC/briefing/dispatch/1993/html/Dispatchv4no39.html http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/briefing/dispatch/1993/html/Dispatchv4no39.html

156

.: David Spiro, The Insignificance of the Liberal Peace; Christopher Layne, Kant or Cant: Myths of the Democratic Peace; and Henry S. Farber and Joanne Gowa, Polities and Peace, in Debating the Democratic Peace, ed. Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996).

157

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992), p. xx.

158

Ibid., p. 276.

159

.: Elie Kedourie, Nationalism (London: Hutchin-son, 1966). Kedourie provides a summary of the views of both Herder and Fichte.

160

Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man, p. 276.

161

. Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981); and Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987).

162

.: Antony J. Blinken, The False Crisis over the Atlantic, Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 3 (May June 2001), p. 3548.

163

Cited in Otto Pflanze, Bismarck and the Development of Germany, vol. 1 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), p. 97.

164

Benjamin Disraeli, February 9,1871, cited in J.C.G. Rohl, From Bismarck to Hitler: The Problem of Continuity in German History (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970), p. 23.

165

Cited in V. R. Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (New York: St. Martin's, 1973), p. 174.

166

Cited in Fritz Fischer, World Power or Decline: The Controversy over Germany's Aims in the First World War, trans. Lancelot Farrar, Robert Kimber, and Rita Kimber (New York: Norton, 1974), p. 26.

167

Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 796797. . Robert J. Art, Why Europe Needs the United States and NATO, Political Science Quarterly, vol. Ill, no. 1 (Spring 1996), p. 139.

168

.: Edward N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire from the First Century A-D. to the Third (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976).

169

Ammianus Marcellinus, The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354378) (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1986), p. 412.

170

, .

171

Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with an introduction, notes, and appendices by J.B. Bury, vol. 4 (New York: AMS Press, 1974), p. 174175.

172

Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, cited in Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome (London: Thames & Hudson, 1995), p. 196.

173

Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 4, p.174175.

174

.: Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vols. 17; J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (A.D. 395 to A.D. 565) (London: Macmillan, 1923); and A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Oxford: Blackwell, 1964). .: A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 3241453 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952).

175

Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 4, p. 174175.

176

William Wohlforth, The Stability of a Unipolar World, International Security, vol. 24, no. 1 (Summer 1999), p. 8.

177

.: Andrew Moravcsik, The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).

178

European Parliament, Principles and General Completion of the Internal Market, Fact Sheet 3.1.0. Available at: http://www%20europarl%20eu%20int/factsheets/3l0en%20htm http://www.europarl.euint/factsheets/3l0en.htm.

179

Robert Schuman, Declaration of 10 May 1950. Available at: http://.europa%20eu%20int/comm/dglO/publications/brochures/docu/5oans/declen%20html#DECLARATION http://.europa.eu.int/comm/dglO/publications/brochures/docu/5oans/declen.html#DECLARATION

180

Jean Monnet, Memoirs, trans. Richard Mayne (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday,!978), p. 392.

181

Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community. Available at: http://www%20europe%20eu%20int/abc/obj/treaties%C2%BB/en/entoc29.htm http://www.europe.eu.int/abc/obj/treaties/en/entoc29.htm

182

Tony Barber, The Euro Takes Its Place in the Flow of History, Financial Times, August 30, 2001.

183

European Commission, Eurobarometer: Public Opinion in the European Union, Report no. 56, p. 14, 3839,5556. Available at: http://europa%20eu%20int/publicopinion/Standarden%20htm http://europa.eu.int/publicopinion/Standarden.htm

184

. Suzanne Kapner, U.S. Venture Capital Sees Trea sure in Europe, New York Times, May 30, 2001.

185

337 , 137 , 136 . Europe's Corporate Invasion of North America at Ail-Time High, KPMG Corporate Finance, January 15, 2001.

186

. Norbert Walter, The Euro: Second to (N)one, German Issues, no. 23 (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 2000).

187

, , . , , . , , , .

188

62 87 . , , 10 . . .

189

Britain's Role in Europe, November 23, 2001. Available at: http://.www%20numberlo%20gov%20uk/news%20asp?Newsid=3101&SectionId=32 http://www.numberlO.gov/uk/news.asp?Newsid=3101&SectionId=32

190

. Ezra Suleiman, Is Democratic Supranationalism a Danger? in Nationalism and Nationalities in the New Europe, ed. Charles A. Kupchan (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).

191

Joschka Fischer, From Confederacy to Federation Thoughts on the Finality of European Integration, speech at Humboldt University, Berlin, May 12, 2000. Available at: http://www%20auswaertiges-amt%20de/www/de/infoservice/download/pdf/reden/redene/rOOO512b-rlOO8e%20pdf http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/www/de/infoservice/download/pdf/reden/redene/rOOO512b-rlOO8e.pdf

192

Cited in Michael J. Sandel, Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 15.

193

. Andrew Moravcsik, Despotism in Brussels? Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 3 (May June 2001), p. 114122. .: Eurobarometer, Report no. 56, p. 4647.

194

Fischer, From Confederacy to Federation.

195

. Philip Stephens and Brian Groom, Blair's Broad Horizons, Financial Times, May 25, 2001.

196

Prime Minister's Speech to the Polish Stock Exchange, October 6, 2000. Available at: http://www%20number-10.gov%20uk/news%20asp?NewsId=134.l&SectionId=32 http://www.number-10.gov/uk/news.asp?NewsId=134.l&SectionId=32

197

Robert Graham, Chirac Seeks EU Pioneer Group on Security, Financial Times, August 27, 2001.

198

Suzanne Daley, French Premier Opposes German Plan for Europe, New York Times, May 29, 2001.

199

. Martin Walker, OverstretchingTeutonia: Making the Best of the Fourth Reich, World Policy Journal, vol. 12, no. 1 (Spring 1995), p. 13. Pricewaterhouse Coopers, European Pension Reform, European Economic Outlook (September 2000), p. 28.

200

Available at: http://www.pwcglobal.com/gx/eng/ins-sol/spec-int/eeo/pwceuropensionreform9-00.pdf

201

. Thomas Fuller, Europe Wants Workers to Move, International Herald Tribune, February 13, 2002.

202

Fischer, From Confederacy to Federation.

203

1820 . , , . , . . David M. Potter, The Impending Crisis, 18481861 (New York: Harper & Row, 1976),p. 5358.

204

Fischer, From Confederacy to Federation.

205

, , .

206

Roger Cohen, Storm Clouds over U.S. Europe Relations, New York Times, March 26, 2001.

207

Ibid.; Roger Cohen, A More Assertive Europe, New York Times, March 30, 2001.

208

Speech on the occasion of the Twentieth Anniversary of the Institute Fran^ais des Relations Internationales, Elysee Palace, November 4,1999. Text distributed by the French embassy in Washington, D.C.

209

Prime Minister's Speech to the Polish Stock Exchange, October 6,2000. Available at http://www%20number-10.gov%20uk/news%20asp?NewsId=1341&SectionId=32 http://www.number-10.gov.uk/news.asp?NewsId=1341&SectionId=32

210

Vedrine Criticizes U.S. over International Ties, Agence France-Press, November 3, 1999. Available at http://wnc%20fedworld%20gov/ http://wnc.fedworld.gov/ as document FBIS-WEU-1999-1103; Craig R. Whitney, On the Ropes, Chirac Fights Back in French TV Interview, New York Times, December 13, 1996; and Yeltsin Very Satisfied with Talks with Jiang Zemin, ITAR TASS, December 10, 1999. Available at: http://wnc%20fedworld%20gov/ http://wnc.fedworld.gov as document FBIS-CHI-1999-2110.

211

Suzanne Daley, French Minister Calls U.S. Policy Simplistic, New York Times, February 7,2002; AlanFriedman, Schroeder Assails EU Deficit Critics, International Herald Tribune, February 2, 2002; Steven Erlanger, Europe Opens Convention to Set Future of Its Union, New York Times, March 1,2002; and T.R. Reid, EU Summit Ends with a Bang and a Whimper, Washington Post, March 17, 2002.

212

Daley, French Minister Calls U.S. Policy Simplistic.

213

Edmund Andrews, Angry Europeans to Challenge U.S. Steel Tariffs at WTO, New York Times, March 6, 2002.

214

I.M. Destler and Steven Kull, Misreading the Public: The Myth of a New Isolationism (Washington, D.C: Brook-ings Institution Press, 1999); Max Boot, The Case for American Empire, The Weekly Standard, vol. 7, no. 5 (October 15, 2001), p. 2730; and Paul Johnson, The Answer to Terrorism? Colonialism, Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2001.

215

C. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Cycles of American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986).

216

Cited in Felix Gilbert, To the Farewell Address: Ideas of Early American Foreign Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), p. 4243.

217

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd, vol. 8 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), p. 28; Jefferson to James Madison, August 28, 1789, ibid., vol. 15, p. 367.

218

Hamilton, Federalist 6, in James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (London: Penguin Books, 1987), p. 106; Jay, Federalist 4, ibid., p. 97.

219

Text in Gilbert, To the Farewell Address, p. 145. Hamilton's thinking is discussed on p. 130131.

220

Hamilton, Federalist 7, in Madison et al., The Federalist Papers, p. 113.

221

Autobiography, 1775, in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, ed. Charles F. Adams, vol. 2 (Boston: Little, Brown, 18501856), p. 505.

222

Cited in Gilbert, To the Farewell Address, p. 145.

223

Hamilton, Federalist II, in Madison et al., The Federalist Papers, p. 133.

224

Jefferson, Inaugural Address of 1801, cited in Jeffrey W. Legro, Whence American Internationalism, International Organization, vol. 54, no. 2 (Spring 2000), p. 259.

225

Cited in Gilbert, To the Farewell Address, p. 43.

226

Text available ibid., p. 145.

227

. Michael Lind, Civil War by Other Means, Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 5 (September October 1999), p. 123142.

228

, , , . , , . . DrewR. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980), p. 137145.

229

. David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), esp. chap. 5.

230

Alexander DeConde, Entangling Alliance: Politics and Diplomacy Under George Washington (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1958), p. 57.

231

. McCoy, The Elusive Republic, p. 146152.

232

DeConde, Entangling Alliance, p. 59.

233

, , - .

234

Caius (a pseudonym) cited in McCoy, The Elusive Republic, p. 164.

235

Jefferson and Hamilton cited in Michael H. Hunt, Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), p. 2526.

236

Hamilton to Colonel Edward Harrington, in The Works of Alexander Hamilton, ed. Henry Cabot Lodge, vol. 8 (New York: Putnam, 18851886), p. 259260.

237

(1778), , 1793 . . ; , . 1800 , . .: Walter LaFeber, The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad Since 1750 (New York: Norton, 1989), p. 2326,44, 50.

238

.: Harry Allanson Ellsworth, One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines, 18001934 (Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1974); and Ellen Collier, Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 17981993 (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1993). .: Harold Sprout and Margaret Sprout, The Rise of American Naval Power, 17761918 (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990).

239

Cited in Dexter Perkins, Hands Off: A History of the Monroe Doctrine (Boston: Little, Brown, 1941), p. 28.

240

Cited in LaFeber, The American Age, p. 84.

241

Cited in Perkins, Hands Off, p. 79.

242

. Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest Design: Anxious Aggrandizement in Late Jacksonian America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985); and McCoy, The Elusive Republic.

243

. Vann Woodward, The Age of Reinterpretation, American Historical Review, vol. 66, no. 1 (October 1960), p. 4, 2.

244

. LaFeber, The American Age, p. 140145.

245

Cited in Perkins, Hands Off, p. 240, 229.

246

LaFeber, The American Age, p. 149151.

247

1893 . , . . Frederick Jackson Turner, The Early Writings of Frederick Jackson Turner, compiled by Everett E. Edwards (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1938); and Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1962).

248

Walter LaFeber, The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 18601898 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963), p. 282, 408.

249

Cited in LaFeber, The American Age, p. 182.

250

1800- .: PeterTrubowitz, Defining the National Interest: Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

251

. Hietala, Manifest Design, p. 39.

252

. Fareed Zakaria, From Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America's World Role (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998); Ernest R. May, Imperial Democracy: The Emergence of America as a Great Power (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961); and LaFeber, The American Age, p. 185204.

253

Cited in Hunt, Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy, p. 37.

254

George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984), p. 17.

255

Cited in Thomas J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 96.

256

Amos Pinchot cited ibid., p. 104.

257

Cited ibid., p. 112.

258

Ibid., p. 124.

259

Thomas A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (New York: Macmillan, 1947), p. 12.

260

Cited ibid., p. 185.

261

Cited ibid., p. 184.

262

Cited in Legro, Whence American Internationalism, p. 260.

263

Cited in Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal, p. 86.

264

Cited in Knock, To End All Wars, p. 241.

265

Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal, p. 32.

266

Robert A. Divine, Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism During World War II (New York: Atheneum, 1967), p. 10.

267

Cited in John A. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1968), p. 352.

268

. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal, p. 61, 115, 193.

269

Cited in Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge, p. 312.

270

Cited in Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal, p. 42.

271

The New Republic cited in Knock, To End All Wars, p. 262; Knock quote from p. 165.

272

Hobson and Oswald Garrison Villard, cited ibid., p. 253.

273

1930- . Thomas N. Guinsburg, The Triumph of Isolationism, in American Foreign Relations Reconsidered, 18901993, ed. Gordon Martel (London: Routledge, 1994), p. 90105.

274

Cited in John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 19411947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), p. 24.

275

19381941 . .: David Reynolds, From Munich to Pearl Harbor: Roosevelt's America and the Origins of the Second World War (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001).

276

Kenneth Davis, FDR: The War President, 19401943 (New York: Random House, 2000), p. 270.

277

Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 19321945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 283.

278

Ibid., p. 319.

279

Divine, Second Chance, p. 4849.

280

Ibid., p. 51.

281

John Culver and John Hyde, American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace (New York: Norton, 2000), p. 263.

282

Divine, Second Chance, p. 80.

283

Robert A. Divine, Roosevelt and World War II (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969), p. 5152.

284

Forrest Davis, What Really Happened at Teheran, Saturday Evening Post, May 20, 1944, p. 44.

285

Cited in Daniel Yergin, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 45.

286

, .

287

Divine, Second Chance, p. 142, 144,147,153,130.

288

Cited in Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, p. 29.

289

Trubowitz, Definingthe National Interest, p. 148.

290

Cited ibid., p. 98.

291

Cited in Divine, Second Chance, p. 143.

292

Divine, Second Chance, p. 63.

293

Washington Dispatches, 19411945: Weekly Political Reports from the British Embassy, ed. H.G. Nicholas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), p. 518.

294

Senator Robert Reynolds of North Carolina cited in Divine, Second Chance, p. 152.

295

Cited ibid., p. 242.

296

Clark Eichelberger cited ibid., p. 35.

297

Michael Leigh, Mobilizing Consent: Public Opinion in American Foreign Policy, 19371947 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976), p. 124.

298

Legro, Whence American Internationalism, p. 274.

299

Truman cited in Howard Jones, A New Kind of War: America's Global Strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 43; and Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, p. 351.

300

Survey conducted by the Gallup Poll and Potomac Associates, as reported in William G. Mayer, The Changing American Mind: How and Why American Public.Opinion Changed Between 1960 and 1988 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992), p. 65.

301

. , . , , , . .: Charles A. Kupchan, The Persian Gulf and the West: The Dilemmas of Security (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987), p. 3140.

302

, . -, , -. -, . . , . -, , , . American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World (New York: Knopf, 2001), - . , , . , , . . , , .

303

Cited in Tim Weiner, Mexican President Warmly Greeted in Washington, New York Times, August 25, 2000.

304

Richard N. Haass, The Reluctant Sheriff: The United States After the Cold War (New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1997).

305

. Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, The Generals'War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), p. 3234.

306

Karl Mannheim, The Problem of Generations, in Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, ed. Paul Kecskemeti (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952), p. 298.

307

William G. Mayer, The Changing American Mind: How and Why American Public Opinion Changed Between 1960 and 1988 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992), chap. 7.

308

85 : . 510 , . America's Global Role: A Nation Divided? Princeton Survey Research/Pew, survey conducted in October 1999. Available at: http://www%20publicagenda%20org/issues/nationdivideddetail%20cfm?issuetype=americasglobalrole&list=6 http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/nationdivideddetail.cfm?issuetype=americasglobalrole&list=6

309

Elite College History Survey, Center for Survey Research and Analysis at the University of Connecticut, conducted for the American Council of Trustees and Alumni, December 1999. Available at: http://www%20goacta/ http://www.goacta and Diane Jean Schemo, Students, Especially 12th Graders, Do Poorly on History Tests, New York Times, May 10, 2002.

310

Jane Perlez, As Diplomacy Loses Luster, Young Stars Flee State Dept., New York Times, September 5, 2000. 2001 . : 2001 . .: David Stout, Sign-Ups for Foreign Service Test Nearly Double After 10-Year Ebb, New York Times, August 31,2001. 2001 .

311

. 1994 . , 98 65 . 1998 96 % 61 % . . .: American Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy 1999, ed. John E. Reilly (Chicago: Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, 1999). Available at: http://www%20ccfr%20org/publications/opinion/AmPuOp99.pdf http://www.ccfr.org/publications/opinion/AmPuOp99.pdf

312

James M. Lindsay, The New Apathy, Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 5 (September October 2000), p. 28. .

313

Peter Trubowitz (University of Texas at Austin), draft paper presented at the Autonomous National University of Mexico, Mexico City, August 20, 2000.

314

Associated Press, Stymied by Senate, Would-Be Envoy Quits, New York Times, September 1, 2000.

315

Alison Mitchell, Bush and the G.O.P. Congress: Do the Candidate's Internationalist Leanings Mean Trouble? New York Times, May 19, 2000.

316

' : , . , , , , . Ivo H. Daalder and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Winning Ugly. NATO's War to Save Kosovo (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000), p. 105.

317

Remarks by the president at Memorial Day service, May 51,1999, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary.

318

Carlotta Gall, Serbs Stone U.S. Troops in Divided Kosovo Town, New York Times, February 21, 2000.

319

Jane Perlez, Kosovo's Unquenched Violence Dividing U.S. and NATO Allies, New York Times, March 12, 2000.

320

Robert Byrd, Europe's Turn to Keep the Peace, New York Times, March 20, 2000.

321

Michael Cooper, Cheney Urges Rethinking Use of U.S. Ground Forces in Bosnia and Kosovo, New York Times, September 1, 2000.

322

Steven Lee Myers, Bush Candidate for Defense Job Sees Overhaul, New York Times, January 12, 2001.

323

George W. Bush, Republican Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech, Philadelphia, August 3, 2000. Available at: http://www%20vote-smart%20org/vote-smart/speeches%20phtml?func=speech&speech=B0O0O01559 http://www.vote-smart.org/vote-smart/speeches.phtml?func=speech&speech=B0O0O01559

324

The Armageddon Nominee, Boston Globe, April 2, 2001.

325

Steven LeeMeyers, U.S. Signs Treaty for World Court to Try Atrocities, New York Times, January 1,2001.

326

The Armageddon Nominee, Boston Globe.

327

Hugo Young, We've Lost That Allied Feeling, Washington Post, April 1, 2001.

328

Statement to NATO foreign ministers in Brussels, December 15,1999, p. 4. Available at: http://www%20state%20gov/www/policy-remarks/1999/991215talbottnac%20html http://www.state.gov/www/policy-remarks/1999/991215talbottnac.html

329

Assistant Secretary of Defense Franklin Kramer, testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, March 9, 2000, p. 5. Available at: http://frwebgate%20access%20gpo%20gov/cgi-bin/getdoc%20cgi?dbname=106senatehearingsdocid=f:65627.pdf http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106senatehearingsdocid=f:65627.pdf

330

Associated Press, U.S. Defense Secretary Says NATO Could Become a Relic of History, December 5,2000. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/europe/12/05/nato/ap/index.html

331

The Alliance at Risk, Guardian, November 24,1999.

332

Cited in Stephen Fidler, Between Two Camps, Financial Times, February 14, 2001.

333

John R. Bolton, testimony before the House International Relations Committee, November 10, 1999, p. 1. Available at: http://www.house.gov/internationaLrelations/106/full/106first/testimony/bolton.htm

334

, , , , . .: White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Remarks by the President and Prime Minister Blair in Joint Press Conference, Camp David, February 23, 2001. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/200102/20010226-1.html. For Powell's views. . U.S. Department of State, Office of the Secretary, Press Availability with NATO Secretary General Lord Robertson, Brussels, Belgium, February 27, 2001. Available at: http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/200l/index.cfm?docid=1000

335

John Vinocur, America's We'll Call If We Need You War, International Herald Tribune, October 3, 2001.

336

The Pew Global Attitudes Project, survey released on December 14,2001. Available at: http://www.people-press.org

337

Steven Erlanger, German Joins Europe's Cry that the U.S. Won't Consult, New York Times, February 13, 2002; Suzanne Daley, Many in Europe Voice Worry U.S. Will Not Consult Them, New York Times, January 31,2002; and Steven Erlanger, Protest, and Friends Too, Await Bush in Europe, New York Times, May 22, 2002.

338

Andrew Sullivan, America at War: America Wakes Up to a World of Fear, Sunday Times (London), September 16, 2001; and Marshall Wittman, panel discussion at the New America Foundation, 21 st Century Infamy: The Terrorism of September 1 lth and Implications for American Foreign Policy, September 13, 2001.

339

Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, trans. Haim Watzman (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2000), p. 495, 460.

340

Martha Crenshaw, The Effectiveness of Terrorism in the Algerian War, in Terrorism in Context, ed. Martha Crenshaw (University Park, Pa.: Penn State University Press, 1995), p. 512513.

341

Alistair Home, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 19541962 (New York: Viking, 1977), p. 444.

342

Crenshaw, The Effectiveness of Terrorism In the Algerian War, p. 480.

343

Thomas Friedman, A Memo from Osama, New York Times, June 26, 2001.

344

Discussion on International Correspondents, CNN, October 6, 2001.

345

Alan Sipress and Lee Hockstader, Sharon Speech Riles U.S., Washington Post, October 6, 2001.

346

. Elaine Sciolino and Eric Schmitt, U.S. Rethinks Its Role in Saudi Arabia, New York Times, March 10, 2002; and Shibley Telhami, Shrinking Our Presence in Saudi Arabia, New York Times, January 29, 2002.

347

Richard Morin and Claudia Deane, Poll: Americans Trust in Government Grows, Washington Post, September 28,2001.

348

Presidential Debate I, October 3, 2000, Boston, Massachusetts. Available at: http://www.foreignpolicy2000.org/debate/candidate/candidate.html

349

Cited in Steven Mufson and John Harris, Novice Became Confident Diplomat on World Stage, Washington Post, January 15, 2001.

350

Sebastian Mallaby, The Man Without a Bumper Sticker, Washington Post, January 15, 2001.

351

U.S. Urges Bin Laden to Form Nation It Can Attack, The Onion, October 3, 2001.

352

. Peter Trubowitz, Defining the National Interest: Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), p. 171234.

353

, , , , , , , . , , , , , , , , , , . Resident Populations of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, Census 2000: Available at: http://blue.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t2/tab01.pdf Recruitment data from Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Force Management Policy, AC Enlisted Accessions by Geography, Population Representation in the Military-Services. Available at: http://dticaw.dtic/mil/prhome/poprep98/html/2-geography.html

354

, 10 10 . , Office of the Deputy Undersecretary for Defense (Installations & Environment), Base Structure Report (A Summary of DoD's Real Property Inventory), Fiscal Year 2001 Baseline. Available at: http://www.acq.osd.mil/installation/irm/irmlibrary/bsr2001.pdf and U.S. Census Bureau, Land Area, Population, and Density for States and Counties, Census 1990. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/9odenstco.txt

355

Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Prime Contract Awards by Region and State, Fiscal Years 2000, 1999, and 1998, Table I-i. Available at: http://webi.whs.osd.mil/peidhome/geostats/p06/fy2000/p06tabi.htm

356

Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, The Gap: Soldiers, Civilians, and Their Mutual Misunderstanding, National Interest, no. 61 (Fall 2000), p. 2937. . the Triangle Institute for Strategic Studies, Project on the Gap Between the Military and Civilian Society, Digest of Findings and Studies Presented at the Conference on the Military and Civilian Society, October 2829, 1999. Available at: http://www.unc.edu/depts/tiss/RESEARCH/CIVMIL.htm

357

Walter Russell Mead, The Jacksonian Tradition and American Foreign Policy, National Interest, no. 58 (Winter 19992000), p. 529.

358

, , - ⅻ . .: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management Policy), Population Representation in the Military Services, November 2000. Available at: http://dticaw.dtic.mil/prhome/poprep99/index.html

359

Timothy Egan, Plan to Expand U.S. Powers Alarming Some in Colorado, New York Times, October 3, 2001.

360

58 41. . -: ໗14, ⻗4; : ໗17, ⻗14; : ໗5, ⻗11. , , 249 180. . -: ໗35, ⻗51; : ໗84, ⻗59; : ໗20, ⻗3. (213 213). . -: ໗64, ⻗21; : ໗67, ⻗75; : ໗5, ⻗19. , , .

361

- , - . , . U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, RankingTables for States: 1990 and 2000. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t2.html Population estimates from U.S. Census Bureau, Census 1990, Projections of the Total Populations of States: 19952025. Available at: http://www census gov/population/projections/ state/ stpjpop txt.

362

U.S. Census Bureau, Census 1990, Projections of the Resident Population by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Nativity: Middle Series, 20502070. Available at: http://www%20eensus/ http://www eensus gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t5-g pdf. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 1990, Projections of the Resident Population by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Nativity: Middle Series, 20752100. Available at: http://www%20census/ http://www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t5-h.pdf

363

U.S. Census Bureau, Census 1990, Projected State Populations, by Race, Sex, and Hispanic Origin: 19952025. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/state/stpjrace.txt

364

.: Dick Kirschten, Ethnics Resurging, National Journal, vol. 27, no. 8 (February 25, 1995), p. 478484. .: Smith, Foreign Attachments: The Power of Ethnic Groups inthe Making of American Foreign Policy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000).

365

. Rodolfo O. de la Garza and Harry P. Pachon, Latinos and U.S. Foreign Policy: Representing the Homeland? (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), p. 13, 2425.

366

Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983).

367

Mayer, The Changing American Mind, p. 211.

368

Lind, Civil War by Other Means, p. 139. . Joel Kotkin, The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution Is Reshaping the American Landscape (New York: Random House, 2000).

369

. After Victory: Institutions, Stra tegic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

370

Felix Gilbert, To the Farewell Address: Ideas of Early American Foreign Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), p. 7, 14.

371

Ibid., p. 1415.

372

. Daniel H. Deudney, The Philadelphian System: Sovereignty, Arms Control, and Balance of Power in the American States-Union, Circa 17871861, International Organization, vol. 49, no. 2 (Spring 1995), p. 191228.

373

Jay, Federalist 5, in James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (London: Penguin Books, 1987), p. 101, 102,103; Jay, Federalist 4, ibid., p. 100.

374

Hamilton, Federalist 7, ibid., p. 111.

375

Jay, Federalist 5, ibid., p. 101; Jay, Federalist 4, ibid., p. 100; Hamilton, Federalist 7, ibid., p. 113; Hamilton, Federalist II, ibid., p. 129.

376

Hamilton, Federalist 51, ibid., p. 320.

377

Cited in Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest Design: Anxious Aggrandizement in Late Jacksonian America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), p. 184.

378

Deudney, The Philadelphian System, p. 217218.

379

Cited in Michael H. Hunt, Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), p. 30.

380

Deudney, The Philadelphian System, p. 214216.

381

Robert Stewart Castlereagh, Correspondence, Dispatches, and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, 3d series, vol. 11 (London: H. Colburn, 1850), p. 105.

382

Official communication to the Russian ambassador in London, January 19,1805, cited in Rene Albrecht-Carrie, The Concert of Europe (New York: Walker, 1968), p. 28.

383

Cited ibid., p. 142.

384

Cited in Bruce Cronin, Community Under Anarchy: Transnational Identity and the Evolution of Cooperation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), p. 56.

385

Cited ibid., p. 60.

386

Cited in Albrecht-Carrie, The Concert of Europe, p. 50.

387

Cited ibid., p. 37.

388

Cited in Cronin, Community Under Anarchy, p. 58.

389

Concert protocol of November 15, 1818, cited ibid., p. 60; Castlereagh cited in Charles K. Webster, The Foreign Policy of Castlereagh, 18121815: Britain and the Reconstruction of Europe (London: G. Bell, 1931), p. 480; Castlereagh, Correspondence, Dispatches, and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, p. 105; and Metternich cited in Jacques Droz, Europe Between the Revolutions, 18151848 (New York: Harper & Row, 1967), p. 17.

390

. Charles A. Kupchan, After Pax Americana: Benign Power, Regional Integration, and the Sources of a Stable Mulipolarity, International Security, vol. 23, no. 2 (Fall 1998), p. 4279.

391

Cited in Gregory F. Treverton, America, Germany, and the Future of Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 104.

392

Speech at the University of Louvain, Belgium, February 1,1996, cited in Kohl Issues New Warning to Britain over EU Reform, Agence France-Presse, February 2,

393

Hamilton, Federalist II, in Madison etal., The Federalist Papers, p. 133. Here Hamilton makes allusion to the writings of 1 Abbe Guillaume Thomas Francois Raynal, particularly his Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains.

394

Cited in William Drozdiak, Even Allies Resent U.S. Dominance: America Accused of Bullying World, Washington Post, November 4, 1997.

395

Lionel M. Gelber, The Rise of Anglo-American Friendship: A Study in World Politics, 18981906 (London: Oxford University Press, 1938), p. 411.

396

Robert S. Ross, Beijing as a Conservative Power, Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 2 (March April 1997), p. 3344; and Nicholas Berry, China Is Not an Imperialist Power, Strategic Review, vol. 24, no. 1 (Winter 2001), p. 410. . Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro, The Coming Conflict with China, Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 2 (March April 1997), p. 1832; and Constantine Menges, China: Myths and Reality, Washington Times, April 12,2001.

397

Data for Chinese and U.S. GDP from International Monetary Fund, The World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database, December 2001. Available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2001 /03/data/index htm. Data on California's economy from California Technology, Trade & Commerce Agency, California Gross State Product. Available at: http://l34.186.44.154/ersi/oer/GSP.html#GSP

398

International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 20012002 (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2001), p. 25, 194. . .: Bates Gill and Michael O'Hanlon, China's Hollow Military, National Interest, no. 56 (Summer 1999), p. 5657.

399

2000 100 , 16 . U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Division, Trade with China: 2000. Available at: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5700.html

400

Doug Struck, Koreans' Anger About Textbook Surprises Japan, International Herald Tribune, May 1920,2001.

401

Doug Struck, Japan's Neighbors Cool to Koizumi, Washington Post, August 25, 2001.

402

Zhongguo Qingnian Bao (China Youth Daily), February 15, 1997, cited in Kokubun Ryosei, Japan-China Relations After the Cold War: Switching from the 1972 Framework, Japan Echo, vol. 28, no. 2 (April 2001), p. 9.

403

Joseph S. Nye, Peace in Parts: Integration and Conflict in Regional Organization (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971).

404

Economic Cooperation Bureau, Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ODA Hakusho 1999 Joukan (ODA White Paper Volume I), p. 150151.

405

4000 . , 765 . .: the World Bank Group, Latin America and the Caribbean. Available at: http://lnwebl8.worldbank.org/External/lac/lac/nsf/694dc25670boe319852567d6006a9c9e/

406

The World Bank Group, Regional Brief: Sub-Saharan Africa. Available at: http://www.WorldBank.org/afr/overview.pdf

407

Carol Lancaster, Aid to Africa: So Much to Do, So Little Done (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), p. 20.

408

Ibid., p. 2.

409

Gene B. Sperling, Toward Universal Education, Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 5 (September October 2001), p. 713.

410

Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999), p. 42.

411

, , , , .

412

Lancaster, Aid to Africa, p. 233238.

413

. Richard N. Gardner, The One Percent Solution, Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 4 (July August 2000), p. 8; and Joseph Kahn, White House Adds Billions to an Increase in Foreign Aid, New York Times, March 20, 2002.

414

Lael Brainard, Terrorism and Textiles, New York Times, December 27, 2001.

415

. John Cassidy, Helping Hands: How Foreign Aid Could Benefit Everybody, New Yorker, March 18, 2002, p. 6066. . Does Aid Help? Washington Post, February 9, 2002.

416

Lancaster, Aid to Africa, p. 3.

417

. Clifford A. Kupchan, Devolution Drives Russian Reform, Washington Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 2 (Spring 2000), p. 6777.

418

. John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, Islam and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); and Bernard Lewis, Islam and Democracy: A Historical Overview; Robin B. Wright, Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions of Reformation; Abdou Filali-Ansary, Islam and Democracy: The Challenge of Secularization; Mohamed Elhachmi Hamdi, The Limits of the Western Model; and Laith Kubba, Recognizing Pluralism, in Journal of Democracy, vol. 7, no. 2 (April 1996).

419

Jesse Helms, Savingthe U.N.: A Challenge to the Next Secretary-General, Foreign Affairs, vol. 75, no. 5 (September October 1996), p. 2.

420

Senate Hearing 105724, Is a U.N. Criminal Court in the U.S. National Interest? July 23,1998 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1998), p. 4.

421

Ikenberry, After Victory, p. 54.

422

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Available at: http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/regional/index.htm

423

. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).

424

U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs, U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics, June 2000, released February 2001, p. 5. Available at: http://ostpxweb/ http://ostpxweb.ost.dot.gov/aviation/international-series

425

.: Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Globalization's Democratic Deficit: How to Make International Institutions More Accountable, Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 4 (July August 2001), p. 26.

426

Cited in Cronin, Community Under Anarchy, p. 61, 56.

427

Cited in Drew R. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jejfersonian America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980), p. 12.

428

Cited in Michael J. Sandel, Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 147.,

429

Cited ibid., p. 126.

430

Cited ibid., p. 146.

431

Cited in McCoy, The Elusive Republic, p. 102.

432

Cited in Sandel, Democracy's Discontent, p. 163.

433

Cited ibid., p. 176177.

434

Cited ibid., p. 179.

435

Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest Design: Anxious Aggran dizement in Late Jackson-ian America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), p. 102104.

436

Cited in Sandel, Democracy's Discontent, p. 216.

437

Cited ibid., p. 218.

438

Stephen Jay Gould, Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle: Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 51.

439

. . ) : Talcott Parsons, The Evolution of Societies (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977); Ernile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society (New York: Free Press, 1984); Karl Marx, Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (London: Allen & Unwin, 1971); and Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983). ) : Gould, Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle; George Modelski, Long Cycles in World Politics (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987); Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981). ) : William H. McNeill, The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963); and William H. McNeill, The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society Since A.D. 1000 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). Stephen . Sanderson, Social Transformations: A General Theory of Historical Development (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1995). . Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: Norton, 1999).

440

4 . , , , . , ; , , . .

441

. Sanderson, Social Transformations.

442

. Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with introduction, notes, and appendices by J. B. Bury, vol. 2 (New York: AMS Press, 1974), p. 311317.

443

. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1991).

444

, . ., , Sanderson, Social Transformations, chap. 5.

1500- 1600- , - . .

445

. R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics: Europe, 17501993 (London: Macmillan, 1998), p. 934; and David S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1969), p. 187188.

446

, . , , XX . .: Ralf Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1959); Clark Kerr et al., Industrialism and Industrial Man: The Problems of Labor and Management in Economic Growth (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960); Anthony Giddens, Sociology: A Brief but Critical Introduction (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982); and F.A. Hayek, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).

447

Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, p. 52.

448

1998 , 2 % , 1 . : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employees on Nonfarm Payrolls by Major Industry Division, Annual Averages, 19472000. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/opub/rtaw/pdf/tablel2.pdf : Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product by Industry in Current Dollars, 194799. Available at: http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/dn2/gpo,htm : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Agricultural Production. Available at: http://stats.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgsOOl.htm

449

1999 40 % (, 19,4 %, 21,5 %). , ( ), 70 % . . , - . . .: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product by Industry in Current Dollars, 19942000. Available at: http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/dn2/gpoc.htm#l9942000

450

U.S. Department of Commerce, The Emerging Internet Economy II, June 1999, p. 2535. Available at: http://www/ http://www.esa.doc.gov/esa/pdf/ED2report.pdf Department of Commerce, The Emerging Digital Economy, p. 17, 28, 34. Available at: http://www.esa.doc.gov/508/esa/pdf/EmergingDig.pdf

451

The UCLA Internet Report, Surveying the Digital Future, October 2000. Available at: http://www.ccp.ucla.edu

452

Cited in Sandel, Democracy's Discontent, p. 27.

453

Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), p. 46, 43.

454

Ibid., p. 238.

455

, . . William A. Galston and Peter Levine, America's Civic Condition: A Glance at the Evidence, in Community Works: The Revival of Civil Society in America, ed. E. J. Dionne, Jr. (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998), p. 3036; and D. W. Miller, Perhaps We Bowl Alone, but Does It Really Matter? Chronicle of Higher Education, July 16, 1999, p. A1617.

456

Norman Nie and Lutz Erbring, Internet and Society, A Preliminary Report, February, 17, 2000. Available at: http://www.Stanford.edu/group/siqss/Press/Release/PreliminaryReport.pdf

457

. Cass Sunstein, republic com (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

458

Joel Kotkin, The New Geography: How the Digital Landscape Is Reshaping the American Landscape (New York: Random House, 2000), p. 169.

459

Putnam, Bowling Alone, p. 342343.

460

David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), p. 271.

461

Thomas Friedman, Cyber-Serfdom, New York Times, January 30, 2001.

462

David Leonhardt and Barbara Whitaker, Higher Fuel Prices Do Little to Alter Motorists' Habits, New York Times, October 10, 2000. . Dianne Feinstein and Olympia Snowe, The Low Cost of Lowering Auto Emissions, New York Times, August 1, 2001.

463

Putnam, Bowling Alone, p. 357, and chap. 14. . Ted Halstead, A Politics for Generation X, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 284, no. 2 (August 1999), p. 3342.

464

Harris Poll data as analyzed in Putnam, Bowling Alone, p. 47.

465

Brooks, Bobos in Paradise, p. 271.

466

: http://herndonl.sdrdc.com/cgi-bin/cancomsrs/?00+P00003335 http://herndonlsdrdc.com/cgi-bin/cancomsrs/?00+P80000912 , , Political Television Advertising for 200 Campaign (June 1 November 7). Available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/cmagpdf/cmag/2000wrapup.pdg.pdf 2000 Campaign Finance Reform. Available at: http://www.opensecrets.org/news/campaignfinance/index.asp .: Michael Cooper, At $92.60 a Vote, Bloomberg Shatters an Election Record, New York Times, December 4, 2001.

467

Don Van Natta, Jr., Enron or Andersen Made Donations to Almost All Their Congressional Investigators, New York Times, January 25,2002.

468

Cited in Sandel, Democracy's Discontent, p. 131.

469

Fox News, Fox Special Report with Brit Hume, Interview with Dale Bumpers, July 20, 2001.

470

Albert R. Hunt, Don't Stop at McCain-Feingold, Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2002.

471

. John B. Judis, The Paradox of American Democracy: Elites, Special Interests, and the Betrayal of the Public Trust (New York: Pantheon, 2000), chap. 5.

472

Cited in Putnam, Bowling Alone, p. 159.

473

., for example, Paul Krugman, Fuzzy Math The Essential Guide to the Bush Tax Cut (New York: Norton, 2001).

474

.: Putnam, Bowling Alone, chaps. 1622.

475

Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society, p. 201.

476

Kotkin, The New Geography, p. 3.

477

. D'Vera Cohn and Sarah Cohen, Census Sees Vast Change in Language, Employment, Washington Post, August 6,2001.

478

Putnam, Bowling Alone, p. 81.

479

Kotkin, The New Geography, p. 7.

480

Ibid., p. 45, 64,70.

481

Evelyn Nieves, Blacks, Hit by Housing Costs, Leave San Francisco Behind, New York Times, August 2, 2001.

482

Nurith Aizenmen, In Bowie, Race Is on the Agenda, Washington Post, April 9, 2001.

483

Anthony Walton, Technology Versus African-Americans, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 283, no. 1 (January 1999),p. 18.

484

Robert D. Kaplan, An Empire Wilderness: Travels into America's Future (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 63.

485

Eric Schmitt, Census Data Show a Sharp Increase in Living Standard, New York Times, August 6, 2001. . Cohn and Cohen, Census Sees Vast Change in Language, Employment. Janny Scott, Rethinking Segregation Beyond Black and White, New York Times, July 29,2001. . Gregory Rodriquez, Still, E Pluribus Unum, San Diego Union-Tribune, July 18,1999.

486

Harvard Graduate School of Education, School Segregation on the Rise Despite Growing Diversity Among School-Aged Children, July 19,2001. Available at: http://www/http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/orfield07172001.html

487

. Putnam, Bowling Alone, map on p. 293.

488

Zell Miller, The Democratic Party's Southern Problem, New York Times, June 4, 2001.

489

Kevin Sullivan, U.S., Mexico Set Plan for a Smart Border," Washington Post, March 23, 2002.

490

Reed Karaim, On Both Sides Now, the Costly Consequences of Vigilance, Washington Post, March 10, 2002.

491

Ibid.

492

Stephen Flynn, Rethinking the U.S. Canadian Border, Buffalo News, July 1, 2001.

493

Richard Holbrooke, interview on Fox News, Special Report with Brit Hume, October 19, 2001.

494

Kaplan, An Empire Wilderness, p. 322328. . Joel Garreau, The Nine Nations of North America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981).

495

Kenichi Ohmae, The Rise of the Region State, Foreign Affairs, vol. 72, no. 2 (Spring 1993), p. 78.

496

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of Americ (New York: Norton, 1992), p. 118.

497

Cited in Richard Morin and Claudia Deane, Poll: Americans' Trust in Government Grows, Washington Post, September 28, 2001.

498

. John A. Hall and Charles Lindholm, Is America Breaking Apart? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).

499

. Sunstein, republic com, p. 170172; and David Bollier, Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth (New York: Routledge, 2002).

500

James H. Snider, E-Democracy as Deterrence: Public Policy Implications of a Deterrence Model of Democratic Accountability, paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Available from: Snider@newamerica.net

501

. Benjamin R. Barber, Three Scenarios for the Future of Technology and Strong Democracy, Political Science Quarterly, vol. 113, no. 4 (Winter 19981999), p. 573589. . Benjamin R. Barber, Civil Society: Getting Beyond the Rhetoric A Framework for Political Understanding, in Civic Engagement in the Atlantic Community, ed. Josef Janning, Charles Kupchan, and DirkRumberg (Gutersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation, 1999).

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