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1819

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Power Study of Iran, 19741975, Report to the Imperial Government of Iran (1975), . 324, B. Mossavar-Rahmani, Iran, in J. Katz and O. Marwah (eds), Nuclear Power in Developing Countries: An Analysis of Decision Making (Lexington, MA, 1982), . 205.

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D. Poneman, Nuclear Power in the Developing World (London, 1982), . 86.

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B. Mossavar-Rahmani, Irans Nuclear Power Programme Revisited, Energy Policy 8.3 (1980), . 193194, B. Mossavar-Rahmani, Energy Policy in Iran: Domestic Choices and International Implications (New York, 1981).

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S. Jones and J. Holmes, Regime Type, Nuclear Reversals, and Nuclear Strategy: The Ambiguous Case of Iran, in T. Yoshihara and J. Holmes (eds), Strategy in the Second Nuclear Age: Power, Ambition and the Ultimate Weapon (Washington, DC, 2012), . 219.

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Special Intelligence Estimate: Prospects for Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1974), . 38, National Security Archive.

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J. Snyder, The Road to Osirak: Baghdads Quest for the Bomb, Middle East Journal 37 (1983), . 565594; A. Cordesman, Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East (London, 1992), . 95102; D. Albright and M. Hibbs, Iraqs Bomb: Blueprints and Artifacts, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1992), . 1423.

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Dr A. Khan, Pakistans Nuclear Programme: Capabilities and Potentials of the Kahuta Project, Speech to the Pakistan Institute of National Affairs, 10 September 1990, quoted in Khan, Making of the Pakistani Bomb, . 158.

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G. Sick, All Fall Down: Americas Tragic Encounter with Iran (New York, 1987), . 22.

1874

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1875

Mossaver-Rahmani, Irans Nuclear Power, . 192.

1876

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1880

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1882

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1883

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1884

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 7879; S. Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Intervention to September 10, 2001 (New York, 2004), . 48.

1885

Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, . 178180.

1886

Sreedhar and Cavanagh, US Interests in Iran, . 140.

1887

C. Andrew and O. Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (London, 1990), . 459.

1888

W. Sullivan, Mission to Iran: The Last Ambassador (New York, 1981), . 201203, 233; Sick, All Fall Down, . 8187; A. Moens, President Carters Advisors, Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (1991), . 244.

1889

Z. Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 19771981 (London, 1983), . 38.

1890

Exiled Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran, BBC News, 1 February 1979.

1891

Sick, All Fall Down, . 154156; D. Farber, Taken Hostage: The Iran Hostage Crisis and Americas First Encounter with Radical Islam (Princeton, 2005), . 99100, 111113.

1892

C. Vance, Hard Choices: Critical Years in Americas Foreign Policy (New York, 1983), . 343; B. Glad, An Outsider in the White House: Jimmy Carter, his Advisors, and the Making of American Foreign Policy (Ithaca, NY, 1979), . 173.

1893

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Berkeley, 1980).

1894

Presidential Approval Ratings Historical Statistics and Trends. www.gallu.com.

1895

A. Cordesman, The Iran-Iraq War and Western Security, 19841987 (London, 1987), . 26; D. Kinsella, Conflict in Context: Arms Transfers and Third World Rivalries during the Cold War, American Journal of Political Science 38.3 (1994), . 573.

1896

Sreedhar and Cavanagh, US Interests in Iran, . 143.

1897

Comment by Sir A. D. Parsons, Her Majestys Ambassador, Teheran, 19741979, in N. Browne, Report on British Policy on Iran, 19741978 (London, 1980), Annexe B.

1898

R. Cottam, US and Soviet Responses to Islamic Political Militancy, in N. Keddie and M. Gasiorowski (eds), Neither East nor West: Iran, the Soviet Union and the United States (New Haven, 1990), . 279; A. Rubinstein, The Soviet Union and Iran under Khomeini, International Affairs 57.4 (1981), . 599.

1899

Turners testimony was leaked to the press, Turner Sees a Gap in Verifying Treaty: Says Iran Bases Cant Be Replaced until 84, New York Times, 17 April 1979.

1900

R. Gates, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insiders Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War (New York, 1996). , , -, , . 122123.

1901

J. Richelson, The Wizards of Langley: The CIAs Directorate of Science and Technology, in R. Jeffreys-Jones and C. Andrew (eds), Eternal Vigilance? 50 Years of the CIA (London, 1997), . 9495.

1902

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1903

Gates, From the Shadows, . 132.

1904

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1905

Main Outlines of the Revolutionary Tasks; Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 4243; . Dimitrakis, The Secret War in Afghanistan: The Soviet Union, China and Anglo-American Intelligence in the Afghan War (London, 2013), . 120.

1906

J. Amstutz, Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation (Washington, DC, 1986), . 130; H. Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union (Durham, NC, 1985), . 1010.

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1910

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1911

Gates, From the Shadows, . 131132.

1912

US Department of State, Office of Security, The Kidnapping and Death of Ambassador Adolph Dubs, February 14 1979 (Washington, DC, 1979).

1913

D. Cordovez and S. Harrison, Out of Afghanistan: The Inside Story of the Soviet Withdrawal (Oxford, 1995), . 35; D. Camp, Boots on the Ground: The Fight to Liberate Afghanistan from Al-Qaeda and the Taliban (Minneapolis, 2012), . 89.

1914

CIA Briefing Papers, 20 August; 24 August; 11 September; 14 September, 20 September; Gates, From the Shadows, . 132133.

1915

What Are the Soviets Doing in Afghanistan?, 17 September 1979, National Security Archive.

1916

D. MacEachin, Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Communitys Record (Washington, DC, 2002); O. Sarin and L. Dvoretsky, The Afghan Syndrome: The Soviet Unions Vietnam (Novato, CA, 1993), . 7984.

1917

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1918

, 29 30 1979.

1919

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1920

. . ., 1995. . 102.

1921

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1922

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1923

Meeting of the Politburo Central Committee, 17 March 1979, . 142149, in Dimitrakis, Secret War, . 133.

1924

. , . 109112.

1925

, 13 1980.

1926

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 77.

1927

The Current Digest of the Soviet Press, American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies 31 (1979), . 4.

1928

Zubok, A Failed Empire, . 262.

1929

. , . 215.

1930

, 13 1980.

1931

. , . 252.

1932

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1933

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1934

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1935

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1936

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1937

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1938

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1939

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1940

.

1941

, . 375.

1942

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1943

Carter, Keeping Faith, . 475.

1944

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1945

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1946

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1947

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1948

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1949

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1950

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1951

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1952

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1953

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1954

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1955

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1956

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1957

Meeting between Saddam Hussein and High-Ranking Officials, 16 September 1980, in K. Woods, D. Palkki and M. Stout (eds), The Saddam Tapes: The Inner Workings of a Tyrants Regime (Cambridge, 2011), . 134.

1958

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1959

President Saddam Hussein Meets with Iraqi Officials to Discuss Political Issues, November 1979, in Woods, Palkki and Stout, Saddam Tapes, . 22.

1960

Brands, Saddam Hussein, the United States, and the Invasion of Iran, . 331. . K. Woods, J. Lacey and W. Murray, Saddams Delusions: The View from the Inside, Foreign Affairs 85.3 (2006), . 227.

1961

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1962

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1963

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1964

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1965

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1966

Sick, All Fall Down, . 313314; J. Dumbrell, The Carter Presidency: A Re-Evaluation (Manchester, 2005), . 171.

1967

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1968

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1969

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1970

T. Parsi, The Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Iran, Israel and the United States (New Haven, 2007), . 107.

1971

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1972

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1973

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1974

The Times, 14 July 1982.

1975

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1976

B. Jentleson, Friends Like These: Reagan, Bush, and Saddam, 19821990 (New York, 1994), . 35; J. Hiltermann, A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq and the Gassing of Halabja (Cambridge, 2007), . 4244.

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1978

Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 113.

1979

H. Brands and D. Palkki, Conspiring Bastards: Saddam Husseins Strategic View of the United States, Diplomatic History 36.3 (2012), . 625659.

1980

Talking Points for Ambassador Rumsfelds Meeting with Tariq Aziz and Saddam Hussein, 4 December 1983, cited by Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 111.

1981

Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 113118.

1982

Admiral Howe to Secretary of State, Iraqi Use of Chemical Weapons, 1 November 1983, Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 107.

1983

Z. Fredman, Shoring up Iraq, 1983 to 1990: Washington and the Chemical Weapons Controversy, Diplomacy & Statecraft 23.3 (2012), . 538.

1984

540, , . , , ; . Hiltermann, A Poisonous Affair, . 58. . Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 108109.

1985

Fredman, Shoring up Iraq, . 539.

1986

Iraqi Use of Chemical Weapons, in Gibson, Covert Relationship, . 108.

1987

Fredman, Shoring Up Iraq, . 542.

1988

A. Neier, Human Rights in the Reagan Era: Acceptance by Principle, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 506.1 (1989), . 3041.

1989

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 201202, M. Bearden and J. Risen, Afghanistan: The Main Enemy (New York, 2003), . 227, 333336.

1990

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 214; ., . . ., 1991. . 139.

1991

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 228229.

1992

, . 223.

1993

J. Hershberg, The War in Afghanistan and the Iran-Contra Affair: Missing Links?, Cold War History 3.3 (2003), . 27.

1994

National Security Decision Directive 166, 27 March 1985, National Security Archive.

1995

Hershberg, The War in Afghanistan and the Iran-Contra Affair, 28; H. Teicher and G. Teicher, Twin Pillars to Desert Storm: Americas Flawed Vision in the Middle East from Nixon to Bush (New York, 1993), . 325326.

1996

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 215.

1997

Coll, Ghost Wars, . 161162, 7188.

1998

Beijing Review, 7 January 1980.

1999

M. Malik, Assessing Chinas Tactical Gains and Strategic Losses Post-September 11 (Carlisle Barracks, 2002), S. Mahmud Ali, US China Cold War Collaboration: 19711989 (Abingdon, 2005), . 177.

2000

Braithwaite, Afgantsy, . 202203.

2001

Teicher and Teicher, Twin Pillars to Desert Storm, . 328.

2002

Toward a Policy in Iran, in The Tower Commission Report: The Full Text of the Presidents Special Review Board (New York, 1987), . 112115.

2003

H. Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records: Saddam Hussein, Irangate and the United States, Journal of Strategic Studies 34.1 (2011), . 103.

2004

H. Emadi, Politics of the Dispossessed: Superpowers and Developments in the Middle East (Westport, CT, 2001), . 41.

2005

Hershberg, The War in Afghanistan and the Iran-Contra Affair, . 3031.

2006

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2007

M. Yousaf and M. Adkin, The Bear Trap (London, 1992), . 150.

2008

Memorandum of Conversation, 26 May 1986, Tower Commission Report, . 311312; Hershberg, The War in Afghanistan and the Iran-Contra Affair, . 40, 42.

2009

Cited by Hershberg, The War in Afghanistan and the Iran-Contra Affair, . 39.

2010

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2011

E. Hooglund, The Policy of the Reagan Administration toward Iran, in Keddie and Gasiorowski, Neither East nor West, . 190. . Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records, . 100.

2012

K. Woods, Mother of All Battles: Saddam Husseins Strategic Plan for the Persian Gulf War (Annapolis, 2008), . 50.

2013

B. Souresrafil, Khomeini and Israel (London, 1988), . 114.

2014

Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, with Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views (Washington, DC, 1987), . 176.

2015

Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, .

2016

A. Hayes, The Boland Amendments and Foreign Affairs Deference, Columbia Law Review 88.7 (1988), . 15341574.

2017

Address to the Nation on the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy, 13 November 1986, PPPUS: Ronald Reagan, 1986, . 1546.

2018

Address to the Nation on the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy, 4 March 1987, PPPUS: Ronald Reagan, 1987, . 209.

2019

L. Walsh, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters, 4 vols (Washington, DC, 1993).

2020

G. H. W. Bush, Grant of Executive Clemency, Proclamation 6518, 24 December 1992, Federal Register 57.251, . 6214562146.

2021

Cabinet Meeting regarding the Iran-Iraq War, mid-November 1986, and Saddam Hussein Meeting with Baath Officials, early 1987, Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records, . 105.

2022

Saddam Hussein Meeting with Baath Officials, early 1987, Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records, . 112113.

2023

, . 113.

2024

Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraqs Weapons of Mass Destruction, 3 vols (2004), 1, . 31; Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records, . 113.

2025

Colin Powell Notes of meeting 21 January 1987, Woodrow Wilson Center, The Origins, Conduct, and Impact of the Iran-Iraq War.

2026

Brands, Inside the Iraqi State Records, . 112.

2027

D. Neff, The US, Iraq, Israel and Iran: Backdrop to War, Journal of Palestinian Studies 20.4 (1991), . 35.

2028

Brands and Palkki, Conspiring Bastards, . 648.

2029

Fredman, Shoring Up Iraq, . 548.

2030

WikiLeaks, 90 BAGHDAD 4237.

2031

Excerpts from Iraqi Document on Meeting with US Envoy, New York Times, 23 September 1990.

2032

Paul to Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti, 20 December 1969, FCO 17/871; Saddam Hussein, Telegram from British Embassy, Baghdad to Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, 20 December 1969, FCO 17/871.

2033

Rumsfeld Mission: December 20 Meeting with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, National Security Archive. C. Saint-Prot, Saddam Hussein: un gaullisme arabe? (Paris, 1987); . D. Styan, France and Iraq: Oil, Arms and French Policy Making in the Middle East (London, 2006).

2034

Saddam and his Senior Advisors Discussing Iraqs Historical Rights to Kuwait and the US Position, 15 December 1990, in Woods, Palkki and Stout, Saddam Tapes, . 3435.

2035

President George H. W. Bush, National Security Directive 54. Responding to Iraqi Aggression in the Gulf, 15 January 1991, National Security Archive.

2036

G. Bush, Speaking of Freedom: The Collected Speeches of George H. W. Bush (New York, 2009), . 196197.

2037

J. Woodard, The America that Reagan Built (Westport, CT, 2006), . 139, n. 39.

2038

President George H. W. Bush, National Security Directive 54. Responding to Iraqi Aggression in the Gulf.

2039

G. Bush and B. Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York, 1998), . 489.

2040

J. Connelly, In Northwest: Bush-Cheney Flip Flops Cost America in Blood, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 29 July 2004. . B. Montgomery, Richard B. Cheney and the Rise of the Imperial Vice Presidency (Westport, CT, 2009), . 95.

2041

W. Martel, Victory in War: Foundations of Modern Strategy (Cambridge, 2011), . 248.

2042

President Bush, Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union, 28 January 1992, PPPUS: George Bush, 19921993, . 157.

2043

. S. Plokhy, The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union (New York, 2014); L. Brandt and T. Rawski (eds), Chinas Great Economic Transformation (Cambridge, 2008).

2044

Bush, State of the Union, 28 January 1992, . 157.

2045

UN Resolution 687 (1991), Clause 20.

2046

S. Zahdi and M. Smith Fawzi, Health of Baghdads Children, Lancet 346.8988 (1995), . 1485; C. Ronsmans et al., Sanctions against Iraq, Lancet 347.8995 (1996), . 198200. , S. Zaidi, Child Mortality in Iraq, Lancet 350.9084 (1997), . 1105.

2047

60 Minutes, CBS, 12 May 1996.

2048

B. Lambeth, The Unseen War: Allied Air Power and the Takedown of Saddam Hussein (Annapolis, 2013), . 61.

2049

C. Gray, From Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq, European Journal of International Law 13.1 (2002), . 119; A. Bernard, Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-Fly Zones, Journal of Strategic Studies 27 (2004), . 454478.

2050

Iraq Liberation Act, 31 October 1998.

2051

President Clinton, Statement on Signing the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, 31 October 1998, PPPUS: William J. Clinton, 1998, . 19381939.

2052

S. Aubrey, The New Dimension of International Terrorism (Zurich, 2004), . 5356; M. Ensalaco, Middle Eastern Terrorism: From Black September to September 11 (Philadelphia, 2008), . 183186; , , C. Shelton, The Roots of Analytic Failure in the US Intelligence Community, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24.4 (2011), . 650651.

2053

Response to the Clinton letter, undated, 1999. Clinton Presidential Records, Near Eastern Affairs, Box 2962; Folder: Iran-US, National Security Archive. , , . Message to President Khatami from President Clinton, undated, 1999, National Security Archive.

2054

Afghanistan: Taliban seeks low-level profile relations with [United States government] at least for now, US Embassy Islamabad, 8 October 1996, National Security Archive.

2055

Afghanistan: Jalaluddin Haqqanis emergence as a key Taliban Commander, US Embassy Islamabad, 7 January 1997, National Security Archive.

2056

Usama bin Ladin: Islamic Extremist Financier, CIA biography 1996, National Security Archive.

2057

Afghanistan: Taliban agrees to visits of militant training camps, admit Bin Ladin is their guest, US Consulate (Peshawar) cable, 9 January 1996, National Security Archive.

2058

.

2059

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (Washington, DC, 2004), . 113114.

2060

President Clinton, Address to the Nation, 20 August 1998, PPPUS: Clinton, 1998, . 1461. , , [] , , , , Appendices to the Referral to the US House of Representatives (Washington, DC, 1998), 1, . 510.

2061

Afghanistan: Reaction to US Strikes Follows Predictable Lines: Taliban Angry, their Opponents Support US, US Embassy (Islamabad) cable, 21 August 1998, National Security Archive.

2062

Bin Ladins Jihad: Political Context, US Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Intelligence Assessment, 28 August 1998, National Security Archive.

2063

Afghanistan: Talibans Mullah Omars 8/22 Contact with State Department, US Department of State cable, 23 August 1998, National Security Archive.

2064

Osama bin Laden: Taliban Spokesman Seeks New Proposal for Resolving bin Laden Problem, US Department of State cable, 28 November 1998, National Security Archive.

2065

.

2066

Afghanistan: Talibans Mullah Omars 8/22 Contact with State Department, US Department of State cable, 23 August 1998, National Security Archive.

2067

.

2068

, Afghanistan: Tensions Reportedly Mount within Taliban as Ties with Saudi Arabia Deteriorate over Bin Ladin, US Embassy (Islamabad) cable, 28 October 1998; Usama bin Ladin: Coordinating our Efforts and Sharpening our Message on Bin Ladin, US Embassy (Islamabad) cable, 19 October 1998; Usama bin Ladin: Saudi Government Reportedly Turning the Screws on the Taliban on Visas, US Embassy (Islamabad) cable, 22 December 1998, National Security Archive.

2069

Osama bin Laden: A Case Study, Sandia Research Laboratories, 1999, National Security Archive.

2070

Afghanistan: Taleban External Ambitions, US Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, 28 October 1998, National Security Archive.

2071

A. Rashid, Taliban: The Power of Militant Islam in Afghanistan and Beyond (rev. edn, London, 2008).

2072

Osama bin Laden: A Case Study, . 13.

2073

Bin Ladin Determined to Strike in US, 6 August 2001, National Security Archive.

2074

Searching for the Talibans Hidden Message, US Embassy (Islamabad) cable, 19 September 2000, National Security Archive.

2075

The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (New York, 2004), . 19.

2076

, .

2077

President George W. Bush, Address to the Nation on the Terrorist Attacks, 11 September 2001, PPPUS: George W. Bush, 2001, . 10991100.

2078

Arafat Horrified by Attacks, But Thousands of Palestinians Celebrate; Rest of World Outraged, Fox News, 12 September 2001.

2079

Statement of Abdul Salam Zaeef, Taliban ambassador to Pakistan, 12 September 2001, National Security Archive.

2080

Al-Jazeera, 12 September 2001.

2081

Action Plan as of 9/13/2001, 7:55am, US Department of State, 13 September 2001, National Security Archive.

2082

Deputy Secretary Armitages Meeting with Pakistani Intel Chief Mahmud: Youre Either with Us or Youre Not, US Department of State, 13 September 2001, National Security Archive.

2083

Message to Taliban, US Department of State cable, 7 October 2001, National Security Archive.

2084

Memorandum for President Bush: Strategic Thoughts, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 30 September 2001, National Security Archive.

2085

President Bush, State of the Union address, 29 January 2002, PPPUS: Bush, 2002, . 131.

2086

US Strategy in Afghanistan: Draft for Discussion, National Security Council Memorandum, 16 October 2001, National Security Archive.

2087

Information Memorandum. Origins of the Iraq Regime Change Policy, US Department of State, 23 January 2001, National Security Archive.

2088

Untitled, Donald Rumsfeld notes, 27 November 2001, National Security Archive.

2089

.

2090

Europe: Key Views on Iraqi Threat and Next Steps, 18 December 2001; Problems and Prospects of Justifying War with Iraq, 29 August 2002. US Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research Intelligence Assessment, National Security Archive. Lord Goldsmith to Prime Minister, Iraq, 30 July 2002; Iraq: Interpretation of Resolution 1441, Draft, 14 January 2003; Iraq: Interpretation of Resolution 1441, Draft, 12 February 2003, The Iraq Enquiry Archive.

2091

To Ousted Boss, Arms Watchdog Was Seen as an Obstacle in Iraq, New York Times, 13 October 2013.

2092

Remarks to the United Nations Security Council, 5 February 2003, National Security Archive.

2093

The Status of Nuclear Weapons in Iraq, 27 January 2003, IAEA, National Security Archive.

2094

An Update on Inspection, 27 January 2003, UNMOVIC, National Security Archive.

2095

Woods and Stout, New Sources for the Study of Iraqi Intelligence, es. . 548552.

2096

Remarks to the United Nations Security Council, 5 February 2003; cf. Iraqi Mobile Biological Warfare Agent Production Plants, CIA report, 28 May 2003, National Security Archive.

2097

The Future of the Iraq Project, State Department, 20 April 2003, National Security Archive.

2098

Ari Fleischer, Press Briefing, 18 February 2003; Paul Wolfowitz, Testimony before House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense, 27 March 2003.

2099

US Strategy in Afghanistan: Draft for Discussion, National Security Council Memorandum, 16 October 2001, National Security Archive.

2100

Planning Group Polo Step, US Central Command Slide Compilation, c. 15 August 2002, National Security Archive.

2101

H. Fischer, US Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, Congressional Research Service, RS22452 (Washington, DC, 2014).

2102

2001 2014 170 000220 000 . ., , www.costsofwar.org.

2103

L. Bilmes, The Financial Legacy of Iraq and Afghanistan: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future National Security Budgets, Harvard Kennedy School Faculty Research Working Paper Series, March 2013.

2104

R. Gates, Memoirs of a Secretary at War (New York, 2014), . 577.

2105

How is Hamid Karzai Still Standing?, New York Times, 20 November 2013.

2106

Memorandum for President Bush: Strategic Thoughts, National Security Archive.

2107

Rapid Reaction Media Team Concept, US Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict, 16 January 2003, National Security Archive.

2108

M. Phillips, Cheney Says He was Proponent for Military Action against Iran, Wall Street Journal, 30 August 2009.

2109

Kerry presses Iran to prove its nuclear program peaceful, Reuters, 19 November 2013.

2110

Full Text: Al-Arabiya Interview with John Kerry, 23 January 2014. www.alara-biya.com.

2111

President Obama, Remarks by the President at AIPAC Policy Conference, 4 March 2012, White House.

2112

D. Sanger, Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyber-Attacks against Iran, New York Times, 1 June 2012; D. Sanger, Confront and Conceal: Obamas Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power (New York, 2012).

2113

B. Gelb, Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects (2006); BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2006; PennWell Publishing Company, Oil & Gas Journal, 19 December 2005; Energy Information Administration, Caspian Sea Region: Survey of Key Oil and Gas Statistics and Forecasts, July 2006; National Oil & Gas Assessment, US Geological Survey (2005).

2114

T. Klett, C. Schenk, R. Charpentier, M. Brownfield, J. Pitman, T. Cook and M. Tennyson, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, US Geological Service (2010), . 30953096.

2115

. : . . , 12 2011.

2116

World Bank, World Price Watch (Washington, DC, 2012).

2117

74 , 2007 92 , United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime World Drug Report 2011 (Vienna, 2011), . 20. , , , , , . . Afghanistan Opium Price Monitoring: Monthly Report (Ministry of Counter Narcotics, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Kabul, and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Kabul, March 2010).

2118

Lifestyles of the Kazakhstani leadership, US diplomatic cable, EO 12958, 17 April 2008, WikiLeaks.

2119

Guardian, 20 April 2015

2120

President Ilham Aliyev Michael (Corleone) on the Outside, Sonny on the Inside, US diplomatic cable, 18 September 2009, WikiLeaks EO 12958; for Aliyevs property holding in Dubai, Washington Post, 5 March 2010.

2121

HIV created by West to enfeeble third world, claims Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Daily Telegraph, 18 January 2012.

2122

Hillary Clinton, Remarks at the New Silk Road Ministerial Meeting, New York, 22 September 2011, US State Department.

2123

J. ONeill, Building with Better BRICS, Global Economics Paper, No. 66, Goldman Sachs (2003); R. Sharma, Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles (London, 2012); J. ONeill, The Growth Map: Economic Opportunity in the BRICs and Beyond (London, 2011).

2124

Jones Lang Lasalle, Central Asia: Emerging Markets with High Growth Potential (February 2012).

2125

Erbil Rotana. www.rotana.com/erbilrotana.

2126

The World in London: How Londons Residential Resale Market Attracts Capital from across the Globe, Savills Research (2011).

2127

The Cameroon international star, Samuel Etoo, signed from Barcelona in 2011, Associated Press, 23 August 2011. 17 10- Shiv Shakit, Grand Opening: Trinbagonian treat in store for U-17 Womens World Cup, Trinidad Express, 27 August 2010.

2128

T. Kutchins, T. Sanderson and D. Gordon, The Northern Distribution Network and the Modern Silk Road: Planning for Afghanistans Future, Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, DC, 2009).

2129

I. Danchenko and C. Gaddy, The Mystery of Vladimir Putins Dissertation, Brookings Institution Foreign Policy, 30 March 2006.

2130

Putin pledges $43 billion for infrastructure, Associated Press, 21 June 2013. . International Association Coordinating Council on Trans-Siberian Transportation, Transsib: Current Situation and New Business Perspectives in Europe-Asian Traffic, UNECE Workgroup, 9 September 2013.

2131

., , the Beijing Times, 8 May 2014.

2132

Hauling New Treasure along Silk Road, New York Times, 20 July 2013.

2133

World Gold Council, Chinas Gold Market: Progress and Prospects (2014). Prada 40 2011 , Annual Report, Prada Group (2011). 2013 Prada Group , , , Annual Report (2014).

2134

., , 46 - , Xinhua, 21 April 2015.

2135

Investigative Report on the US National Security Issues Posed by Chinese Telecommunications Companies Huawei and ZTE, US House of Representatives Report, 8 October 2012.

2136

Department of Defense, Sustaining US Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (Washington, DC, 2012).

2137

President Obama, Remarks by the President on the Defense Strategic Review, 5 January 2012, White House.

2138

Ministry of Defence, Strategic Trends Programme: Global Strategic Trends Out to 2040 (London, 2010), . 10.

2139

International Federation for Human Rights, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: A Vehicle for Human Rights Violations (Paris, 2012).

2140

Erdoğans Shanghai Organization remarks lead to confusion, concern, Todays Zaman, 28 January 2013.

2141

Hillary Clinton, Remarks at the New Silk Road Ministerial Meeting, 22 September 2011, New York City.

2142

President Xi Jinping, Promote People-to-People Friendship and Create a Better Future, 7 September 2013, Xinhua.

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